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Tapir Bibliography


KEY, WHERE KNOWN
Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii)
Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris)
Mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque)
Asian or Malay tapir (Tapirus indicus)



This bibliography is a work in progress.
We will include many more citations, downloadable files, and links in the days to come.
For more recent citations, please see the two libraries linked above.
If you have a recommendation for this bibliograpy, please send e-mail.



Abdulali, H. The "dipping" habit of the tapir. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 1952; 50:932-933.
biology/ behavior.

Abel Remusat. Article unknown. Journal Unknown.
Early description of Malayan tapir.

Acosta, H; Cavelier, Jaime, and Londoño, S. Aportes al conocimiento de la biologia de la danta de montana, Tapirus pinchaque, en los Andes centrales de Colombia. [Contributions to knowledge of the biology of the mountain tapir, Tapirus pinchaque, in the central Andes of Colombia.]. Biotropica. 1996; 28(2):258-266.

Adloff. Über das Gebiss von Tapirus americanus. [On the dentition of Tapirus americanus]. Anat. Anzeiger. 1928 Sep 4; 66:132-136.

Affonso, Renato de Oliveira. Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) em uma Área de Mata Subtropical do Sul do Brasil: Dieta, Uso da Área e Densidade Populacional. / Dissertação. Rio de Janeiro. UFRJ, Museu Nacional, 1998. xv, 104p. Tese: Mestre em Ciências Biológicas (Zoologia). 1. Tapiridae; 2. Dieta; 3. Densidade; 4. Uso da Área; 5. Dispersão de Sementes. I. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - Museu Nacional. II. Teses
[Abstract in English]

Agenbroad, Larry D. and Downs, William R. A robust tapir from northern Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 1984; 19(2):91-99.
biology/ paleontology/ taxonomy.

Aguilar, W. El manejo de la vida silvestre en Honduras. [The management of wildlife in Honduras]. In: Morales, R; Macfarland, D.; Incer, J., and Hobbs, A., eds. Memorias de la primera reunion regional Centroamerican sobre vida silvestre. Matagalpa, Nicaragua; 25-29 Julio 1978.
Unidad de areas silvestres y cuencas del catie, 111-114.1978. Reference found in Baird's tapir studbook.

Alaman. Article unknown. Journal Unknown.
Early description of tapir.

Alexander, I. D. Actinomyces infection in a tapir (Tapirus terrestris). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine. 1978; 9(4):124-126.
Actinomyces species were found in purulent exudate drawn from a sublingual abscess in an adult, male, Brazilian tapir. The course of this disease progressed through stages showing some similarities to Actinomyces infection in the domestic bovine.
gastrointestinal/ bacterial disease.

Alho, D. J. R. and Lacher, T. E. Jr. Mammalian Conservation in the Pantanal of Brazil. Mare, M. A. and Schmidly, D. J., eds. Latin American Mammalogy: History, Biodiversity, and Conservation. Norman, Oklahoma and London: University of Oklahoma Press; 1991; pp. 280-294.
biology/ conservation/ natural history.

Allen. Title unknown. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1904; 20:430.
Is this the same as Allen, J.A.?
taxonomy.

Allen, J. A. Title unknown. Journal Unknown.
Description of Tapirus terrestris guianae.

Alston, ER. Mammalia. In: Goodman and Salvin. Biologia Centrali-Americana: Zoology; 1882; pp. 101-104 (and others?), pl 8 & 9, figs. 3-5.
"Description, characters, bibliographic references".

Alston, ER. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1879. 1880:187 and 666.
Includes range of Tapirus bairdii.

Alvarez del Toro, Miguel. A note on the breeding of Baird's tapir (T. bairdii) at Tuxtla Gutierrez Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook. 1966; (6):196-197.
reproduction/ husbandry.

Alvarez del Toro, Miguel. Unknown title. Unknown Journal. 1952.

Ameghino, F. L'avant-premier dentition dans le tapir [The first/foremost teeth in the tapir] . Anales Museo Nacional De Buenos Aires. 1911; 13:1-30.
Also in a bound volume, ser. 3, vol 18.
anatomy/ gastrointestinal.

Ameghino, F. Una nueva especie de tapir (Tapirus spegazzinii) [A new species of tapir (Tapirus spegazzinii)]. Anales Museo Nacional De Buenos Aires. 1909 Dec; 20:31-38.
taxonomy.

André, E. Un naturalista en la Guayana. Collección Cuatricentenario de Caracas 1964. (Traducción de la edición en inglés, publicada en 1904.).
Accounts of the tapir in the wild.

Anon. Anta arrives. Brookfield Bison. 1979; June/July8.
husbandry.

Anon. Captive rearing records of tapirs at Howletts and Port Lympne. International Zoo News. 1980; 27(2-3):45-46.
husbandry.

Anon. Cats and tapirs at Howletts and Port Lympne. International Zoo News. 1980; 27(2-3):45-46.
husbandry.

Anon. Ecuador: plight of the mountain tapir. Defenders of Wildlife News. 1969; Jan-Feb-Mar:81.
conservation.

Anon. The new-born tapir. The Illustrated London News. 1882; LXXX(2234 - 25 Feb).
Article and engraving. The parents, in Regents Park Zoo, London, were thought to be an American tapir and a mountain tapir. [Note: After the death of the "mountain tapir," it was concluded by examination of the skull to be a dark variety of the lowland tapir; this later finding is in Sclater 1882.].

Anon [Todd S, Wilson R]. Results of a survey of captive tapirs taken by the Tapir Research Institute between July 1970 and March 1971. Tapir Research Institute, California. 1971; 1-22.
husbandry.

Anon. Short comparative notes on the anatomy of the Indian tapir. Archiv. Zool. 1910 Jun 3; 6(15):15 pp., 7 figs.

Anon. "South American tapir" and "Mountain or woolly tapir". Oryx. ~1973 or before:418 - one paragraph each.
Recommendations for conservation.
conservation.

Anon. Tapir de America. [Tapir of America]. Casa, Tiro y Pesca. 1950; 20(206-207):11-15.
Illustrated.

Anon. Woolly tapirs. International Zoo News. ~1971:119.
Correction to article published by Marvin L. Jones December 1970.

Anon. Zum erstenmal Woltapire in einem europaischen Zoo in Frankfurt [With the first wooly tapir in a European zoo in Frankfurt]. Das Tier. 1968; 6(8):32.
husbandry/ conservation/ behavior.

Anon or unknown. Short comparative notes on the anatomy of the Indian Tapir. Arkiv. Zool. 1910; 6(15 - Jun 3):15 pp., 7 figs.

Anon. Unknown title. Zoonooz.
A photo and article (?) about "Sandia," male mountain tapir born at San Diego Zoo May 12, 1992.

Anthony, G. The tapir: Study of gaits, investigation of tapirs in captivity, pathological approach. [Dissertation]: The Faculty of Medicine of Nantes, France; 1987; 79 pp.
biology/ anatomy.

Anthony, R. La poche gutturale du tapir. [The gutteral pouch of the tapir]. Bull Soc. Sc. Vet. De Lyon. 1920; 1-15.
anatomy/ respiratory.

Asdell, S.A. Tapiridae. In: Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. Comstock Publishing Associates, a division of Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York; 1946; 2nd Edition1964.
reproduction (interesting misinformation).

Ashley, Mary V; Norman, Jane E., and Stross, Larissa. Phylogenetic analysis of the perissodactylan family Tapiridae using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COII) sequences . Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 1996; 3(4):315-326.
genetics.

Ashraf, N. V. K. (Wildlife Institute of India, New Forest, Dehra Dun-248 006, India.). Conservation of some wildlife species. Animal Production and Rural Development. Proceedings of the Sixth AAAP Animal Science Congress; 1992: 205-218.
This review considers the conservation of 3 groups of wildlife species in Asia: (1) species used in animal production ,which include ancestors of domesticated bovids (e.g. Asiatic wild buffalo), wild populations of farmed ungulates (e.g. Himalayan musk deer) and civets (e.g. large spotted civet and Malabar civet); (2) species whose potential for animal production has been recognised, but are not exploited, including relatives of white cattle (kouprey and gaur), buffaloes (tamaraw and anoa) and pigs (pygmy hog); (3) species whose potential has not yet been recognised, including rare lagomorphs (Lispid hare, Sumatran rabbit and Anami rabbit), tahr and Malayan tapir.
conservation/ biology.

Ayres, J. M. and Ayres, C. (Nat. Amazonian Res. Inst. [INPA], Manaus, Brazil.). Aspectos da caca no alto Rio Aripuana [Aspects of hunting in the upper Aripuana River]. Acta Amazonica. 1979; 9(2):287-298.
biology.

Ayres, J. M.; de Magalhaes Liva, D.; de Souza Martins, E., and Barreiros, J. L. K. On the track of the road: changes in subsistence hunting in a Brazilian Amazonian village. Robinson, J. G. and Redford, K. H., eds. Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1991; pp. 449-490.
conservation/biology.

Bach, F.; Mayer, H., and Poley, D. Colic in a Malayan tapir due to ingestion of sand. Praktische Tierarzt. 1986; 67(6):508-509.
gastrointestinal.

Bajon. Title unknown. Date unknown.
Bajon was an early naturalist who thought tapirs wer ruminants with three stomachs. Reference found in Roulin.

Baker. Unknown. Unknown. 1919.
Note: Is this the same as the 1920 article cited in Schauenberg?

Baker, A. B. Breeding of the Brazilian tapir. Journal of Mammalogy. 1920; 1(3):143-144.
biology/reproducton.

Bamberg, E; Mostl, E.; Patzl, M., and King, G. J. Pregnancy diagnosis by enzyme immunoassay of estrogens in faeces from nondomestic species. J Zoo Wildl Med. 1991; 22(1):73-77.
reproduction/ endocrinology.

Banerjee, S. and Ghosh, M. Prehistoric Fauna of Kausarabi, near Allahabad, U.P., India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India. 1981; 78(1-4):113-119.
Remains of T. indicus are found among 3,000-year-old ruins. The tapir and a two-humped camel "were probably either purposefully brought or were received from foreign travellers or rulers as gifts".
biology/palentology.

Bangs. Proceedings of the New England Zool. Club. 1900; 1:90.
taxonomy.

Banziger H. Description of new moths which settle on man and animals in S.E. Asia. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 1987; 94(4):671-681.
biology.

Banziger, H. (Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50002, Thailand.). The heaviest tear drinkers: ecology and systematics of new and unusual notodontid moths. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society. 1988; 36(1):17-53.
biology.

Banziger, H. Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths I; ecological and ethological studies on Calpe eustrigata (Lepid., Noctuidae). Acta Tropica. 1975; 32(2):125-144.
biology.

Banziger, H. Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths II: Studies on a further 3 adult Calyptra [Calpe] sp. (Lepid., Noctuidae). Acta Tropica. 1979; 36(1):23-37.
biology.

Banziger H. The heaviest tear drinkers: ecology and systematics of new and unusual notodontid moths. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 1988; 36:17-53.
biology.

Banziger H. Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths I; ecological and ethological studies on Calpe eustrigata (Lepid., Noctuidae). Acta Tropica 1975; 32:125-144.
biology.

Banziger H. Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths II: Studies on a further 3 adult Calyptra [Calpe] sp. (Lepid., Noctuidae). Acta Tropica 1979; 36:23-37.
biology.

Barongi, R. Panama's Macho de Monte. ZooNooz. 1992; LXV(8):6-11.
Describes the plight of a group of captive Baird's tapirs formerly the possession of General Manuel Noriega of Panama, and the efforts to provide for them in the aftermath of the Panamanian invasion in 1989.
husbandry/ veterinary medicine/ biology.

Barongi, R. Tapir TAG 1992 Annual Report Wiese, RJ; Hutchins, M; Willis, K, and Becker, S, editors. AAZPA Annual Report on Conservation and Science 1991-92. Bethesda, MD USA: American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums. pp 122-123.
conservation.

Barongi R. Tapirs in Captivity and their Management at Miami Metrozoo. AAZPA Annual Proceedings, Minneapolis; 1986: 69-108 [or is it 96-108?].
husbandry.

Barongi, R. A., Curator of Mammals (San Diego Zoo). Husbandry and conservation of tapirs Taprius sp. International Zoo Yearbook. 1993; 327-15.
Detailed description of tapir husbandry and conservation.
husbandry/ conservation.

Barongi, R. and Kenyon K. (Tapiridae): A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: AAZPA Librarians Special Interest Group, National Zoological Park; 1990.

Barongi, R.; Ventocilla, J.; Miller, P., and Seal, U., eds. Evaluacion de Viabilidade Poblacion y Habitat del Macho de Monte (Tapirus bairdi). [Population and Habitat Viability Assessment for Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdi).] Translations by J.B. Stoopen [Spanish/English]. ANCON, IUCN/SSC Grupo Especialista de Tapires (IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group), IUCN/SSC Grupo Especialista en Cria para Conservacion (IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group). Reporte de PHVA del Macho de Monte, Panama City, Panama: Wildlife Conservation Society, American Airlines, Walt Disney World Co.; December 1-3, 1994.

Barongi, Rick; Dee, Michael; Greene, Lewis; Janssen, Donald L.; Ledder, Diane; Matola, Sharon; Byers, Onnie, and Ellis, Susie. Tapir Conservation Assessment and Management Plan [CAMP] Working Document.: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group; 1994; p. 110 pp.
Report from the workshop held 8-12 March 1994.
conservation.

Barquez RM; Mares MA, and Ojeda RA. Mammals of Tucuman [Mamiferos de Tucuman].: University of Oklahoma, Norman; 1991; p. 282.
Bilingual text. Illustrated by Norberto Giannini. Illustratations and maps.
biology.

Bartmann, W. Keeping and breeding a mixed group of large South American mammals at Dortmund Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook. 1980; 20:271-274.

x Baruch, Terry; Leff, Monica, and Smith, Monica, Students. Dissection of Muscles of Tapirus.; 1973 Jun.
Description of a dissection of a T. terrestris x T. bairdii cross from L.A. Zoo. Line drawings and descriptions of the musculature.
Download PDF

Baumann, R; Mazur, G, and Braunitzer, G (Zent. Physiol., Med. Hochsch., Hannover, München, Martinsried, FRG). Oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin from the white rhinoceros. Respir. Physiol. 1984; 56(1):1-9.
hematology/ respiratory.

Baumgartner, R. Haltung und todesfalle von tapiren (Tapirus terrestris und Tapirus indicus) im Zoologischen Garten Zurich unter besonderer berucksichtigung der tuberkulose [Death of tapirs (Tapirus terrestris and Tapirus indicus) in the Zurich Zoological Garden under special consideration from tuberculosis]. Eker Zootiere. 1992; 3429-33.
tuberculosis/ bacterial disease.

Beddard, F. E. Notes upon the anatomy of the American tapir (Tapirus terrestris L.). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1889:252-258.
anatomy.

Billberg. Synopsis faunae Scandinaviae. In. Mammalia, Conspectua A ; 1927; 1(1):(before p. 1).
New name for Tapir Gmelin.

Blaine, A. Report on endangered species of South America: Colombia. Information supplied by Prof. J. Hernandez Camacho [Unpublished]. 1970.
Cited in Baird's tapir studbook.

Blainville, H. M. D. de. Tapirus. In. Ostéographie . . . des Mammiferes. Paris; 1846; 4(Z, G): pp. 1-52, pls. 1-6.
osteology.

Blake, William P. A note on the occurrence of fossil remains of the tapir in California (may not be exact title). Amer. Jour. Sc. 1868; ser. 2(vol. 45):381.

Blampied NLQ, Alchurch, AF. Illness in male Brazilian tapir - Veterinary Report. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust Annual Report. 1977; 14:91-96.
veterinary medicine.

Blampied NLQ, Alchurch, AF. Postmortem on male Brazilian tapir - Veterinary Report. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust Annual Report. 1976; 13:108-112.
veterinary medicine/ pathology.

Blampied NLQ, Alchurch, AF. Removal of placental from Brazilian tapir - Veterinary Report. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust Annual Report. 1976; 13:108-112.
veterinary medicine/ reproduction.

Blampied NLQ, Alchurch, AF. Suspected ragwort poisoning in Brazilian tapir - Veterinary Report. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust Annual Report. 1975; 12:94-96.
veterinary medicine/ toxicity.

Blampied NLQ, Alchurch, AF. Treatment after recapture of female Brazilian tapir - Veterinary Report. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust Annual Report. 1973; 10:51-56.
veterinary medicine.

Blampied NLQ, Begg TB. Suspected Ragwort poisoning in tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) - Veterinary Report. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust Annual Report. 1970; 7:55-56.
veterinary medicine/ toxicity.

Blampied, N. and Allchurch, A. F. Post mortem on male Brazilian tapir - Veterinary Report. Dodo. 1978; 15:102-106.
veterinary medicine/ pathology.

Blouch, R. A. Current status of the Sumatran rhino and other large mammals in Southern Sumatra. IUCN/WWF Report 4: Project 3033 Field Report. Bogor, Indonesia: IUCN/WWF Conservation for Development Programme; 198430-32.
biology/ conservation.

Blumenbach, J. F. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. Dieterich, Johann Christian, ed. 1 ed. Gotingen; 1779; vol. 1, p. 129. 559 pp.
Type reference for Tapirus suillus.
taxonomy.

Bode, N. C. The antique tapir. Zoonooz. 1952; 25(12):2-3.

Bodmer, RE. Fruit patch size and frugivory in the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris). J. Zool. 1990; 222(1):121-128.
nutrition/ biology.

Bodmer, RE (Dep. Zool., Mus. Paraense Emilio Goeldi, C.P. 399, 66.040 Belem, PA, Brazil). Influence of digestive morphology on resource partitioning in Amazonian ungulates. Oecologia. 1991; 85(3):361-365.
nutrition/ gastrointestinal/ biology.

Bodmer, RE (Large Anim. Res.Group, Dep. Zool., Univ. Cambridge, 34A Storeys Way, Cambridge CB3 0DT, UK). Responses of ungulates to seasonal inundations in the Amazon floodplane ["floodplain?"]. J. Trop. Ecol. 1990; 6(2):191-201.
biology.

Bodmer, RE (Dep. Zool., Mus. Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66.040 Belem-PA, Brazil). Strategies of seed dispersal and seed predation in Amazonian ungulates. Biotropica. 1991; 23(3):255-261.
biology/ nutrition.

Bodmer, RE. Ungulate biomass in relation to feeding strategy within Amazonian forests. Oecologia. 1989; 81(4):547-550.
nutrition/ biology.

Bodmer, RE (Dep. Zool., Large Animal Res. Group, 34A Storeys Way, Cambridge CB3 0DT,UK). Ungulate management and conservation in the Peruvian Amazon. Biological Conservation. 1988; 45(4):303-310.
conservation/ biology.

Bodmer, R. E.; Bendayan Acosta, N. Y.; Moya Ibanez, L, and Fang, T. G. Manego de ungulados en la amazonia peruana: analisi de su caza y comercializacion. [Management of the ungulates in the Peruvian Amazon; analysis of their hunting and commercialization]. Bol Lima. 1990; 12(70):49-56.
biology.

Bodmer, R. E.; Fang, T. G.; Moya, I. L., and Gill, R. Managing wildlife to conserve Amazonian forests: population biology and economic considerations of game hunting. Biological Conservation. 1994; 67(1):29-35.
In studies on game hunting in the lowland Amazonian forests of the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyaco-Tahuayo in NE Peru, costs were calculated of converting an over-hunted forest (especially primates and tapir) to a more sustainably used one. A management model was developed that considers population biology of game with economic cost/benefit analysis, and income distribution from game hunting. Costs of implementing a more sustainable hunt would incur a 26% reduction in economic benefits for hunters and reduce extraction of mammalian biomass by 35%.
biology/ conservation.

Bodmer, Richard E. and Brooks, Daniel M. Status and action plan of the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) / Evaluación del estado y plande acción del tapir de tierra baja (Tapirus terrestris) / Diagnóstico e plano de ação para a anta comum (Tapirus terrestris). In: Brooks, Daniel M.; Bodmer, Richard E., and Matola, Sharon, compilers. Tapirs - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK; 1997; pp. 46-56 (English), 107-117 (Spanish), 134-144 (Portuguese).
conservation/ biology.
Read HTML or download HTML zip file from The Tapir Gallery site
Download from TSG web site

Bodmer, Richard E.; Fang, T. G., and Ibanez, L. M. Ungulate management and conservation in the Peruvian Amazon. Biological Conservation. 1988; 45:303-310.
conservation.

Boeuf, O. Tapirus jeanpiveteaui nov. sp., nouvelle espece de Tapiridae (Perissodactyla) du Pliocene de Charente (France). [Tapirus jeanpiveteaui nov. sp., a new species of Tapiridae (Perissodactyla) from the Pliocene of Charente (France).]. Palaeontographica. 1991; Abteilung A(217):177-194.
paleontology.

Bonney, S. and Crotty, M. J. Breeding the mountain tapir at Los Angeles Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook. 1979; (19):198-200 (photo).
husbandry/ reproduction.

Borst, G. H. A.; Vroege, C.; Poelma, F. G.; Zwart, P., and Strik, W. J. Pathological findings on animals in the Royal Zoological Gardens of the Rotterdam Zoo during the years 1963, 1964, and 1965. Acta Zoologica Et Pathologica Antverpiensia. 1972; 563-20.
veterinary medicine/ pathology.

Bourdelle, E. Ordre des perissodactyles in Grasse. Traite De Zoologie, Paris. 1955; 17:1.

Bourliére. Title unknown. Publication Unknown. 1957.
Distribution? Location of mountain tapir killed.

Brunnich. Zoologiae Fundamenta. 1771:44-45.
Type reference for the genus of tapirs; the species used for genus typing was Hippopotamus terrestris, (Linnaeus 1758).
taxonomy.

Brambell, Michael. Horse, Tapir & Rhinoceros. London: The Bodley Head; 1976; pp. 29-33.

Brehm, A. Title unknown (in German). In: Zur Strassen, O., ed. Publication unknown; 1915; (12) pp. 625-634.

Bressou, C. La myologie du tapir (Tapirus indicus L.). [The myology of the tapir (Tapirus indicus L.)]. Mammalia. 1961; 25358-400.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Bressou, C. Le pied des taprirides. [The feet of tapirs.]. Mammalia. 1950; 14:140-144.
anatomy.

Brisson. Regnum Animale. 1762:81.
Type reference for Tapirus brisson.
taxonomy/ paleontology.

Brogan, A. E.; Parmalee, P. W., and Polhemus, R. R. A review of fossil tapir records from Tennessee with descriptions of specimens from two new localities. J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 1980; 55(1):10-14.
biology/ paleontology.

Brogan, Arthur E.; Paul W. Parmalee, and Richard R. Polhemus. A review of fossil tapir records from Tennessee with descriptions of specimens from two new localities. J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 1980; 55(1):10-14.
paleontology.

Brooks, Daniel M. [M.Sc. thesis]. Distribution, Habitat Association, and Factors Determining Assemblage Composition of Mammals in the Paraguayan Chaco. Texas Tech University; 1993.

Brooks, Daniel M. Preliminary comparisons of large mammal assemblages in five semi-arid environments of the New World. Proc. IX Ann. Mtg. EX. Soc. Mamm.; Junction, Texas.

Brooks, Daniel M. Tapirus terrestris. In: Brautigan, A., ed. Draft Report to CITES Animal Committee. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN; 1991; p. 20.
conservation.

Brooks, Daniel M. Title unknown. Species. Newsletter of the Species Survival Commission. IUCN.; 21/22.
conservation.

Brooks, Daniel M.; Bodmer, Richard E., and Matola, Sharon, compilers. Tapirs - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. (English, Spanish, Portuguese). Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group. IUCN; 1997; (viii)164 pp.

Brown, C. E. Rearing wild animals in captivity, and gestation periods. Journal of Mammalogy. 1936; 17(2):10-13.
husbandry.

Brown, Janine L.; Citino, Scott B.; Nelson, M. F.; Miller, Chris, and Shaw, Jackie. Characterization of endocrine patterns during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in Baird's tapirs. Biology of Reproduction. 1992; 46(1):176.
endocrinology/ reproduction.

Brown, Janine L.; Citino, Scott B.; Shaw, Jackie, and Miller, Chris. Endocrine profiles during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii). Zoo Biology. 1994; 13(2):107-117.
Note: Title give elsewhere as "Circulating steroid concentrations during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).".
reproduction/ endocrinology.

Buck, Frank and Anthony, E. Bring 'Em Back Alive. New York: Garden City Publishing Company; ~1930; pp. 7-17.
This is a very interesting antecdote about Frank Buck's experience being attacked by a Malayan tapir that he was trying to medicate.
behavior/ husbandry.

Buffon. Title unknown. Publication Unknown.
Hershkovitz says: "Based on Allamand. suppl. in Histoire naturelle, vol. 15, Holland ed., pls 9 10 of male and female T. terrestris exhibited in Amsterdam.".

Burbank, J. On the tapir trail. Is it a hog, a hippo, an elephant? Zoo Life. 1993; Winter:87.

Burton, M. Tapirs. Zoo Life. 1956; 11(1):12-14.
biology.

Buschelberger, P. Mitteilung zur Lebenserwartung und fortpflanzung von Tapirus terrestris [Information on life expectancy and reproduction in Tapirus terrestris]. Der Zoologische Garten. 1987; 57(5/6):371-372.
reproduction/ husbandry/ biology.

Butler, PM. The milk-molars of Perissodactyla, with remarks on molar occlusion. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1951; 121:777-817.
paleontology/ anatomy.

Butler, PM. Molarization of the premolars in the Perissodactyla. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1951; 121:819-843.
paleontology/ anatomy.

Cabrera. Title unknown. Pubication Unknown. 1960.
Baird's tapir distribution and ?

Cabrera, Angel. Catalago de los mamiferos de America del Sur. Revista del Museo Argino de Ciencias Naturales. Ciencias Zoologicas. 1961; 4(2):309-732.

Cabrera, Angel and Yepes, Jose. Los tapires o antas (Familia Tapiridae). In. Mamiferos Sud-Americanos. 2 ed. Ediar S. A. Editores; 1960; (Historia Natural Ediar, Tomo II) pp. 99-101.
An edition was published by Compania Argentina de Editores, Buenos Aires, 1940.
biology.

Caddick, G. B. Central American tapir breeding project: Belize Zoo. AAZPA Regional Conf. Proc.; 1988: 267-271.
Tapirus bairdii.
husbandry/ reproduction.

Cadieux, C. L. Wildlife Extinction. Washington D.C.: Stone Wall Press; 1991.
259 p.; Illus. text and photographs by author. Drawings by Bob Hines. [Available from Amazon.com]
conservation/ biology.

Caine, N. G. Weldon P. J. (Dep. Psychol., Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA 17837, USA). Responses by red-bellied tamarins (Sanguinus labiatus) to fecal scents of predatory and non-predatory neotropical mammals. Biotropica. 1989; 21(2):186-189.
biology.

Campbell, B. The comparative myology of the forelimb of the hippopotomus, pig, and tapir. American Journal of Anatomy. 1936; 59:201-247.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Campbell, B. The hindfoot musculature of some basic ungulates. Journal of Mammology. 1945; 26:421-424.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Carbone, Terry. Happy As a Tapir. Viking Press; 1992; ISBN: 0670842273.
Children's book. Illustrated by Keith Du Quette.

Carriker. In: Allen, G. M. Extinct and vanishing mammals of the Western Hemisphere with the marine species of all oceans: American Committee for International Wildlife Protection Special Publication # 11; 1942; p. 405 and ?
Mainly about mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque). Tells the story of fifteen mountain tapirs whose hooves were cut off. This is not the original published account of that story.
biology/ conservation.

Castellanos, A. X. El tapir andino (Tapirus pinchaque Roulin): crianza de un ejemplar en el bosque protector de Pasochoa y notas ecológicas en el Parque Nacional Sangay, Ecuador. [Tesis de Licenciatura]. 1994. Universidad Central de Ecuador, Quito.

Cattoi, N. Una especie extinguida de Tapirus Brisson (Tapirus rioplatensis nov. sp.). [An extinct species of Tapirus Brisson (Tapirus rioplatensis nov. sp.).]. Ameghiniana. 1957; 115-21.

Cavelier, Jaime and Etter, A. Deforestation of montane forest in Colombia, as a result of illegal plantation of Opio, Papaver somniferum: Neotropical Montane Forest Biodiversty and Conservation Symposium at New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, N.Y. June 21-23, 1993; published 1995.

Cerdeno, E. and Ginsburg, L. Les Tapiridae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) de l'Oligocene et du Miocene inferieur Europeens. [The Tapiridae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Oligocene and lower Miocene of Europe]. Annales De Paleontologie. 1988; 7471-96.
paleontology/ taxonomy.

Cerdeno, E. and Morales, J. Los tapires del Mioceno inferior de España. [The tapirs of the lower Miocene of Spain.]. Paleontologia i Evolucio. 1986; 20125-128.
paleontology/ taxonomy.

Chabaud, A. G. Revue critique des nematodes du genre Quilonia et du genre Murshidia. Annales De Parasitologie Humaine Et Comparee. 1957; 32:98-131.
parasitology.

Chabaud, A. G. and Bain, O. Description of Spirobakerus weitzeli new genus new species and remarks on spirocercidal nematodes. Annales De Parasitologie Humaine Et Comparee. 1981; 56:73-80.
parasitology.

Chapeau, Christine; King, Gordon J., and Bamberg, Elmar. Fecal estrogens in one primate and several ungulate species during various reproductive stages. Animal Reproduction Science. 1934; 2:167-175.
reproduction/ endocrinology.

Chevalier, H. J.; Bohm, K. H., and Seeger, J. Humane tuberkulose beim tapir. [Human tuberculosis in the tapir]. Kleintierpraxis. 1969; 14(8):213-215.
tuberculosis/ bacterial disease.

Cobb, W. M. The cranio-facial union and the maxillary tuber in mammals. Americal Journal of Anatomy. 1943; 72:39-111.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Colbert, E. H. and D.A. Hooijer. Pleistocene mammals from the limestone fissures of Szechwan, China. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1953; 102:1-134.
paleontology.

Condamine. Title unknown.
An early explorer who described tapirs.

Conservation International. Report on biodiversity in Ecuador. Washington, D.C. Distributed to a workshop in Quito, Ecuador; 1993.
Note: I don't know how much this has on tapirs.

Cope, E. D. Vertebrate remains from the Port Kennedy bone deposit. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 1899; (11):193-267.
Tapirus "haysii" = copei.
paleontology.

Corbet, G. B. and Hill, J. E. The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region: A Systematic Review. Oxford University Press. 1992; part.
biology.

Cranbrook, Earl of. The contribution of archaeology to the zoogeographer of Borneo, with the first record of a wild canid of early Holocene age.; 1988.
biology/ paleontology.

Crandall, Lee S. Family Tapiridae. Management of Wild Animals in Captivity. University of Chicago Press; 1964; pp. 499-504.
[Is there a 1963 edition? I also have the title as "Management of Wild Mammals in Captivity.] and it should say, In: Management, etc.
husbandry.

Crandall, Lee S. The mountain tapir in the Bronx Zoo. Animal Kingdom. 1951; 1(54):2-8.
[Hershkovitz says Vol. 44 (and?) 45, nos. 1, 2, 1952 - get copies of these.].
husbandry.

Crotty, MJ. The year of the tapir. Zoo View. 1977; 12(1):10.
husbandry.

Crotty, MJ, Bonney S. Breeding the mountain tapir at Los Angeles Zoo. Int. Zoo Yearbook 1979: 184-187. husbandry.

Crow. Title Unknown. 1967; p. 129 and others?
distribution.

Cuocolo, R. Reacao fibrosa da parede do estomago de Tapirus americanus provacada por Physocephalus nitidulans [Fibrous reaction of the stomach wall of Tapirus americanus provoked by Physocephalus nitidulans]. Arquivos Do Instituto Biologico Sao Paulo. 1942; 13:271-282.
parasitology.

Cuvier, M le Baron. On the Revolutionary Upheavals on the Surface of the Globe and on the Changes which they have Produced in the Animal Kingdom. Paris; 1825.
Note: [English translation.] There are a number of references to tapirs, but no in-depth discussion of them.
paleontology.

Cuvier, M le Baron. Rapport sur un memoire de M. Roulin, ayant pour objet la decouverte d'une nouvelle espece de tapir dans l'Amerique du Sud, fait a l'Academie Royal des Sciences. Annales Des Sciences Naturelles. 1829; 17:107-112.
biology.

Czelusniak, J.; Goodman, M.; Koop, B. F.; Tagle, D. A.; Shosani, J.; Braunitzer, G.; Kleinschmidt, T. K.; de Jong, W. W., and Matsuda, G. Perspectives from amino acid and nucleotide sequendes on cladistic relationships among higher taxa of eutheria. Current Mammology (Plenum Press). 1990; 2:545-572.
taxonomy/ genetics.
[Available from Amazon.com] [Volume 1 is also available.]

D'Aulaire, Emily and D'Aulaire, Ola. The creature time forgot, condensed from: International Wildlife (Jan-Feb) 1979. Reader's Digest. 1980; (Sep):169-174. ISSN: 0034-0413 (Montreal).
This article was reprinted in a number of Reader's Digest editions: Portugual, China and others.
biology/ paleontology.

D'Aulaire, Emily and D'Aulaire, Ola. Is this the creature time forgot? International Wildlife. 1979; 9(1):28-32.
biology/paleontology.

Döderlein. Über das Skelett des Tapirus Pinchacus, Inaugural-Dissertation. 1877.
osteology/ distribution.

Da Cunha, M. Sobre os ciliados intestinaes dos mammiferos. Brasil-Medico. 1918; 32:161.
biology.

Da Fonseca, F. Protozoarios parasitas IV. Protozoarios novos de tapirideos. Mem. Inst. Butantan. 1940; 14:43-51.
parasitology.

DaCunha, M and Muniz, J. Contribution to the knowledge of ciliata parasitic in Mammalia of Brazil. Sciencia Medica. 1925; 3:740-747.
parasitology.

DaCunha, M and Muniz, J. Nouveau cilie parasite caecum du Tapirus americanus. Decription d'un nouveau genre. [New ciliated cecal parasite of Tapirus americanus] Comptes Rendus des Séances. Societe De Biologie (Paris). 1928; 98:631-632.
parasitology.

Dalquest, W. W. and Carpenter, R. M. Early pleistocene mammals from the Seymour foundation, Knox and Baylor Counties, Texas, exclusive of camelidae. Texas Tech University; 1988.
paleontology.

Dampier (?). Dampiere's Voyages. The two voyages to Campeachy; with a description of the coasts, products, inhabitants, logwood-cutting, trade, etc. of Yucatan, Campeachy, New Spain, etc. 1698; p. 102.

Danek, J.; Routa, V.; Sevcik, B., and Caslavka, J. (Vyzkumny Ustav Biofaktory Veterinarni Leciva, Pohori-Chotoun, 259 49 Jilove u Prahy, Czechoslovakia.). Ivermectin treatment for mange and helminthoses in ruminants and South American tapirs. Biologizace a Chemizace Zivocisne Vyroby-Veterinaria. 1985; 21(2):183-192.
The efficacy of Ivomec against sarcoptic mange in cattle and goats, psoroptic mange in sheep and Haematopinus eurysternus infestation in cattle was confirmed. The preparation Eqvalan was used for sarcoptic mange among South American tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in a zoo. It is stated that both preparations were also effective against gastrointestinal helminths, but no details are given.
parasitology/ gastrointestinal/ dermatology.

Darwin, Charles. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex; 1871.
In a later edition (Princeton University Press, 1981) the references are on pp. 184 and 303. Brief reference to tapirs in regards to patterning of the young.
biology/ paleontology.

Darwin, Charles. Origin of Species.
Brief reference to tapirs in comparison with evolution of the horse.

Davidson, Gladys. Whipsnade Zoo Again. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons Limited; 1937; pp. 77-83.
juvenile natural history.

De Azara, F. Essais sur l'Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes de la Province du Paraguay. . . . French ed. 1801;(1): p. 5.
(Hershkovitz cites an English translation by Hunter.).
natural history.

De la Tour, G. D. Confusion in zoology based on faulty translations. Saeugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. 1972; 20(4):373-374.
biology.

De Landa, Diego first Bishop of Valladolid. Relación de las Cosas de Yucatán. In (?): Tozzer; 1941:203(?). 1566.
distribution/ natural history.

De Sahagún, F. B. Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España.; 1831.
Description of Baird's tapir written in the 1500s.

De Vos, A. Wildlife utilization on marginal langs [this must be "lands"??] in developing countries. Renecker, A. and Hudson, R. J., eds. Wildlife production: conservation and sustainable development. Fairbands, Alaska: Alaska University, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station; 1991;(91-6): pp. 8-10.
biology/ conservation.

De Wilde, A. J. Simposia Nac. "Diversidad Biologica, Conservacion y Manejode los Ecosistemasde montana en Colombia". In: Cavelier, Jaime and Uribe, A., eds. Caramanta, un proyecto para la creacion de un nuevo parque nacional natural: June 6-10, 1994; Colociencias, Bogotá Universidad de los Andes.

De Wilde, A. M. Caramanta, un proyecto para la creacion de un nuevo parque nacional natural. In: Cavelier, Jaime and Uribe, A., eds. Simposia Nac. "Diversidad Biologica, Conservacion y Manejo de los Ecosistemas de Montana en Colombia". Universidad de los Andes, Jun 6-10: Colciencias, Bogotá 1994.

Del LLano-Buenaventura, M. Los Páramos de los Andes. Bogotá, Colombia: Montoya and Araujo, Ltda.; 1990.
biology.

Del LLano-Buenaventura M. Los Páramos de los Andes. Bogotá, Colombia: Montoya and Araujo, Ltda.; 1990.

DeMagalhaes, A. C. Anta, Tapir. Boletim Biologico. 1938; 3:175-178.
biology.

Dennler de la Tour, G. Ursprung der namen tapir und anta beitrag zur etymologie sudamerikanischen tiernamen [Origin of the tapir name and its contribution to the etymology of South American animal names]. Saugetierkundliche Mitt. 1971; 20(1-2):144-146.
biology.

Desmarest. Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. Nouv. ed. 1819; 32 p. 458.
Type reference for Malayan tapir.
taxonomy.

Deuve, J. Note sur la famille Tapiridae au Laos. [Notes on the family Tapiridae of Laos]. Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Laos. 1961; 1(4):47-48.
biology.

Dillehay, D. L.; Boosinger, T. R., and MacKenzie, S. (Dep. Comparative Med., University of Alabama at Birmingham, University Station, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.). Coccidioidomycosis in a tapir. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1985; 187(11):1233-1234.
A case in a 25-year-old, wild caught male tapir (Tapirus terrestris) from Ecuador which was shipped to the Birmingham Zoo when approximately five years old. The animal had a three-day history of lethargy, dyspnoea and anorexia. Weight loss was observed over a 3-week period. Despite intensive therapy, the tapir died. Necropsy was performed, and on the basis of histological and morphological examination, disseminated coccidioidomycosis was determined to be the cause of death. The liver contained pyogranulomas with numerous foreign body-type cells which contained spherules. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive staining of deparaffinized and trypsinized sections, using fluorescence-conguated anti-globulins specific for the tissue form of Coccidioides immitis. The course of the disease was similar to that reported in horses and cattle. Lung lesions were not seen. It is concluded that the tapir probably became infected in Ecuador,where it was captured approx. 20 yr.earlier. Coccidioidomycosis is indigenous in Ecuador.
respiratory/ fungal disease.

Ditmars, Raymond L. Strange Animals I Have Known. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company; 1931.
Photo and caption only. Baird's tapir mislabelled as "Brazilian Tapir".

Dittrech, L. Zwillinge [trans. Another source had no "e"] beim flachlandtapir [cap or not?] (Linne 1758) [Twins from [get trans.] lowland tapirs (Linnaeus 1758). Saeugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. 1969; 17367.
reproduction/ biology/ neonatology.

Divakaran, N. N. et. al. Tuberculosis in a tapir (Tapirus indicus). Indian Vet J. 1985; 62(12):1086-1087.
tuberculosis/ bacterial disease.

Donat, K. The auricular muscles of the Tapirus terrestris. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia. 1980; 8:284-286.
Note: There seems to be some confusion in the Donat listings. Can someone clarify the citations?
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Donat, K. Der M. cucullaris beim Amerikanisher tapir (Tapirus terrestris L. 1758) [The M. cucullaris of the Tapirus terrestris L. 1758]. Zentralblatt Vetmed. 1981; 10(2):125-129.
I have not seen the original. The title may have mistakes. This may have been printed in German, then in English.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Donat, K. Musculus cucullaris (branchiogenic muscles of shoulder) of American tapir (Tapirus terrestris, L. 1758). Anat. Hist. Embryol. 1981; 10(2):125-129.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Donat, K. and Ucar, Y. Der M. auricularis im Amerikanisher tapir (Tapirus terrestris L. 1758) [The M. auriculares of the Tapirus terrestris L. 1758]. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia. 1979; 8(3):284-286.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Downer, Craig. Uphill struggles. BBC Wildlife, London. 1996; 14(2):24-30.
Mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque).
biology/ conservation.

Downer, Craig C. Bigfoot of the Andes. Nature Conservancy Magazine. 1996:8-9.
Mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque.) Also published online: <a href="http://www.tnc.org/news/
magazine/nov_dec/ecoforum.htm">http://www.tnc.org/news/
magazine/nov_dec/ecoforum.htm</a>.
biology/ conservation.

Downer, Craig C. The gentle botanist. Wildlife Conservation. 1995 Aug; 98(4):30-35.

Downer, Craig C. The mountain tapir, endangered ‘flagship’ species of the high Andes. Oryx. 1996; 30(1):45-58.
biology/ conservation.

Downer, Craig C. A paramo paradise: Colombia's Las Hermosas National Park. Washtington, D.C.: Organization of American States; 1981; pp. 18-25.
Mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque).

Downer, Craig C. Status and action plan of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) / Evaluación del estado y plan de acción para el tapir Andino (Tapirus pinchaque). In: Brooks, Daniel M.; Bodmer, Richard E., and Matola, Sharon, compilers. Tapirs - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK; 1997; pp. 10-22 (English), 75-88 (Spanish).
conservation/ biology.

Dunn, F. and Adams, J. Recent records for the tapir in Templer Park. Malay. Nat. J. 1963; (17):59.
biology.

Durrell, Gerald. Island Zoo. Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Company; 1963; pp. 37-39.
Photos by Suschitzky.
behavior.

Earle, C. The evolution of the American tapir. Geological Magazine. 1893; 10391-396.
paleontology.

Earle, C. Some points in the comparative osteology of the tapir. Science. 1889; 21:118.
musculoskeletal/ anatomy.

Eaton, Theodore H. Jr. Comparative anatomy of the vertebrates. Second ed. New York: Harper & Brothers; 1960; c1951 p. 174.
Note: Drawing of skeletal feet.

Edinger T. Frontal sinus evolution (particularly in the Equidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 1950; 103412-496.
anatomy/ paleontology.

Edinger T. and Kitts B. The foramen ovale. Evolution. 1954; 8389-404.
anatomy/ paleontology.

Eigener. Title unknown.; 1954.
Note: I haven't seen this reference. It was cited in re: Baird's tapir in the Red Data Book, 1966.

Eisenberg, JF, Groves, CP, and MacKinnon, K. Tapire [Tapirs]. Grzimeks Enzyklopedie, Saugetiere. [Grzimeks Encyclopedia of Mammals]. 1987; pp. 598-608.

Eisenberg, JF, Groves, CP, and MacKinnon, K. Tapirs. Grizmek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Parker, S. P. ed. New York, London: McGraw Hill; 1990; Vol. 4, pp. 598-608.
biology.

Eisenberg, John F. Introduction / Introducción / Introdução. In: Brooks, Daniel M.; Bodmer, Richard E., and Matola, Sharon, compilers. Tapirs - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK; 1997; pp. 1-2 (English), 65-66 (Spanish), 123-125 (Porguguese).
conservation/ biology.

Eisenberg, John F. Mammals of the Neotropic Volume One: The Northern Neotropics - Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1989.
449 p. & 21 pls. maps, illus; Illustrated by Fiona Reid. Maps by Sigfrid James Bonner.
biology/ conservation.

Eisenmann V, Guerin C. Tapirus priscus from the Upper Miocene of western Europe: paleontology, biostratigraphy, and palaeoecology. Paleontologia i Evolucio. 1992; 24-25113-122.
paleontology/ biology.

Ellerman, J. R. and Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian Mammals, 1758 to 1946. London: British Museum (Natural History); 1951;810 pp.
Gives distribution information for T. indicus.

Emmons, LH. Geographic variation in densities and diversities of non-flying mammals in Amazonia. Biotropica. 1984; 16(3):210-222.

Emmons, LH. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide; Second Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1997.
396 p. Illusrations. Maps. Illustrayed by Francois Feer.
biology/ conservation.

Emry, R. J. A tiny new Eocene ceratomorph and comments on "tapiroid" systematics. Journal of Mammalogy. 1989; 70794-804.
paleontology.

Enders. Title unknown. 1939.
Note: Is this the same as Enders, R.K., 1935?

Enders, R. K. Mammalian life histories from Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard). 1935; 78(4):385-502.
biology.

Ensley, P. K.; Gerber, F. H., and Meier, J. E. Acute gastrointestinal distress in a ten-day-old Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine. 1980; 11(4):113-117.
A three-day old, male, hand-reared Baird's tapir was found vomiting, weak and exhibiting signs of abdominal distress. Salmonella poona was isolated from the rectal culture. A fecal culture 30 days later tested positive for Salmonella poona.
gastrointestinal/ neonatology/ salmonellosis.

Erhart, M. B. Feixe atrio-ventricular de his no Tapirus americanus. Arquivo De Anatomia e Antropologia. 1937; 18:37-42.
cardiovascular/ anatomy.

Erxleben, J. C. P. Systema Regni Animalis per Clases, Ordines, Genera, Species, Varietates, cum Synonymia et Historia Animalium.: Weygandianis, Lipsiae; 1777;(Classis I): p. 191 (and ?). 636 pp.
Note: Page 191 given in Hershkovitz as type description for Hydrochaeris tapir.
taxonomy.

Evarestrova, A. Gemogramma tapira. Proceedings of the Moscow Zoological Park. 1946; 3:219-220.

Fa, J. E. and Morales, L. M. Patterns of mammalian diversity in Mexico. Ramamoorthy, T. P.; Bye, R.; Lot, A, and Fa, J., eds. Biological Diversity of Mexico: Origins and Distribution. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1993; pp. 319-361.
biology/ conservation.

Ferrier, W. B. Tapir calf. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 1905; (17):242.
biology/ neonatology.

Ferris, W. B. Note on the Malay tapir (Tapirus indicus) in captivity. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 1905; 17(5):242-243.
husbandry [Which is correct? Ferris or Ferrier?].

Fieber. Title unknown. 1844.
taxonomy?

Filhol MH. Note relative a la decourerte d'un animal appartenant au genre des tapirs dans les gisements de phosphates de chaux de Quercy. [A note about the discovery of an animal belonging to the genus of the tapirs within the layers of phosphates of the limes of Quercy.]. Mem. Soc. Physiques Et Naturelles. 1874; 1-3.
paleontology.

Finnegan, Mitch; Munson, Linda; Barrett, Sean; Calle, Paul P. Vesicular Skin Disease of Tapirs. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. 1993; 416-417.
Read in HTML

Fischer. Synopsis Mammalium, Addenda.; 1830; p. 604.
Note: I think p. 604 is correct. Hershkovitz says "[sic=406]" - Gray, 1871, gives p. 406. If p. 604 isn't correct, then it's p. 406.
Tapir pinchaque is renamed Tapirus roulinii.

Fischer, G. Zoognosia tabulis synopticis illustrata. 3 (Guiana) ed. Moscow: Nicolai Sergeidis Vsevolozsky; 1814;(3): p. 292. 734 pp.
Type reference for Tapirus rufus?
taxonomy.

Fisher, J.; Simon, N., and Vincent, J. Wildlife in Danger. New York: The Viking Press; 1969.
Note: One note said there are mistakes.
Includes tapir conservation in southern Mexico - possibly more on tapirs as well.
conservation.

Flesher Kevin and Ley Eduardo. A frontier model for landscape ecology: the tapir in Honduras. Environmental and Ecological Statistics. 1996 Jun; 3119-125.
biology/ conservation.

Flint, J.; Ryder, O. A., and Clegg, J. B. (MRC Mol. Haematol. Unit, Inst.Mol.Med., Univ. Oxford, John Radcliffe Hosp., Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK). Comparison of the .alpha.-globin gene cluster structure in Perissodactyla. J. Mol. Evol. 1990; 30(1):36-42.
To investigate molecular evolution in a mammalian order with a comprehensive fossil record, we have constructed .alpha.-globin-like gene cluster maps for members of the order Perissodactyla. Although the arrangement of genes is the same in the five Equidae examined, the tapir and rhinoceros differ from each other and the horse in the position and number of their .zeta. genes, but not in the arrangement of their .alpha. and .theta. genes. In contrast to morphological work, a dendrogram derived fron restriction site maps associates the tapir with the horse rather than with the rhinoceros.
genetics/ taxonomy.

Flower, SS. Contributions to our knowledge of the durationof life in vertebrate animals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1931; (5. Mammals):145-234.
biology.

Flower, SS. List of the vertebrated animals exhibited in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London, 1828-1927.: Zoological Society of London; 1929;(I. Mammals):419 pp.

Flower, W. H. Title unknown. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1867; (XVI):240-241.

Foenander, E. C. Big game of Malaya. London: Batchworth Press; 1952.
biology.

Fontaine, Pierre A. Longevity of the Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus). International Zoo Yearbook. 1962; (3):80.
biology/ husbandry.

Frädrich, Hans. Zum Fang des Wolltapirs (Tapirus pinchaque Roulin 1829). [On the Capture of the Woolly Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque Roulin 1829).]. Der Zoologischer Garten, Leipzig. 1970; 38(6):281-296.

Frädrich, Hans and Thenius, Erich. Tapirs. In: Grzimek, B., (ed.). Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1972;(13): pp. 17-33.
biology.

Frackowiak, H and Godynicki, S. Head arteries in the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris). Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu. 1991; 22915-20.
anatomy/ cardiovascular.

Fragoso, JM. The ecology and behaviour of Baird's tapir in Belize [BSc Thesis]. 1983. Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
biology.

Fragoso, JM. Title unknown.; 1994.
Note: Ask Leo Salas if this has much on tapirs.

Fragoso, J. and Williamson, M. Tapir discovery in Belize. Species (Newsl. Species Survival Comm.). 6 ed.; 1986.
Tapirus bairdi; p.9.
biology.

Fragoso JMV. The effect of hunting on tapirs in Belize. Robinson JG and Redford KH, editors. Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation: The University of Chicago Press; 1991; pp. 154-173.
Dep. Wildlife Range Sci., 118 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
biology/ conservation.

Fragoso, Jose. Tapir research in Belize. Belize Audubon Society Bulletin. 1985; 17(7):2-3.
biology.

Fragoso, Jose M. The effects of selective logging on Baird's tapir. Mares, Michael A. and Schmidly, David J., eds. Latin American Mammalogy: History, Biodiversity, and Conservation. Norman, Oklahoma and London: University of Oklahoma Press; 1991.
biology/ conservation.

Fredrick, D. L. Cytological changes before, during, and after pregnancy in South American tapirs. American Association of Zoological Parks And Aquariums Regional Conference Proceedings. 1982:364-371.
reproduction/ husbandry.

Friant, M. Le telencephale des tapirides. Anatomischer Anzeiger. 1943; 94:26-41.
anatomy/ neurology.

Frick, C. Extinct vertebrate faunas of the badlands of Bautista Creek and San Timoteo Cañon, Southern California. University of California Publications in Geology. 1921; (12):277-424.
[Tapirus merriami].
paleontology.

Frolka, J. Erkrankungen beim im zoo gehalten schabrackentapir (Tapirus indicus) und Flachlandtapir (Tapirus terrestris).[Diseases of captive Malayan and lowland tapirs]. Erkrankungen Zootiere, Berlin; 1986: 189-193.
veterinary medicine.

Frolka, J (Berlin, German Democratic Republic; Akademie-Verlag). Tuberculosis among Brazilian tapirs in a zoo and its prevention. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 31. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo-und Wildtiere, Dortmund 1989.; 1989: 281-284.
tuberculosis/ respiratory/ bacterial disease.

Frolka, J and Rostinska, J (Lesna Zool. Garden, 76314 Gottwaldov, Czechoslovakia. Berlin, German Democratic Republic; Akademie-Verlag). Uber die Wirksamkeit von ivermectin MSD (Ivomec, Eqvalan) gegen Sarcoptesraude und nematodenbefall bein zootierren. [Efficacy of Ivermectin MSD (Ivomec, Eqvalan) against Sarcoptes scabiei and nematodes in zoo animals] Ippen, R and Schroder, H. D. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 26. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere vom 2. Mai bis 6. Mai 1984 in Brno; 1984: 455-462.
Reported in this paper is experience obtained from therapeutic application of Ivomec and Eqvalan (Merck, Sharp, and Dohme) to zoo animals. Ivermectin MSD was found to act strongly on scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) in tapir (Tapirus terrestris) and on intestinal nematodes in blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) as well as on equine ascaridae and lesser and major equine Strongyli in Shetland pony. The same broad anthelminthic action of the substance was not confirmed, however in dromedary (Camelus bactrianus). Ivermectin had no effect either on coccidia. Since both preparations exhibited strong ascaricidal, insecticidal, and anthelminthic effectiveness, with hardly any side effects being caused, their final testing and therapeutic use is recommended for these and other species of zoo animals.
dermatology/ parasitology.

Göltenboth, R. Uber eine enterkiefergeschwulst bei einem Schabrackentapir (Tapirus indicus Cuv.).: IX International Symp Erkr Zootiere (Salzburg), Berlin, Akademie Verag; 1967; pp. 239-242.
biology.

Gale, N. and Sedgwick, C. A note on the woolly tapirs (Tapirus pinchaque) at the Los Angeles Zoo . International Zoo Yearbook. 1968; (8):211-212.
management/ veterinary medicine.

Gambarian, P. P. How mammals run; anatomical adaptations. New York: Halsted Press Book; 1972.
anatomy/ behavior/ musculoskeletal.

Gambaryan, D. P. Morfofunktsionalinyi analiz nyshts konechnustei tapira (Tapirus americanus)/. Zoologische Jahrbuch Akademie Naukowe Arm. Esr. 1964; 13:5-50.

Garland Jr. T, Janis CM. Does metatarsal/femur ratio predict maximal running speed in cursorial mammals? Journal of Zoology, London. 1993; 229133-151.
paleontology/ biology.

Garton, E. R. Late Pleistocene and recent mammal remains from two caves at Bowden, West Virginia. West Virginia Academy of Science Proceedings. 1977; 49(1):41.
Note: abstract only.
paleontology.

Gaudry A. La dentition des ancestres des tapirs. [The dentition of the ancestors of the tapirs.]. Bull. Geol. Sco. France. 1897; 3rd ser., 25315-235??
paleontology/ anatomy.

Gaumer. Monografía de los mamíferos de Yucatán, México.; 1917; p. 43.
taxonomy/ weights and measurements.

Gazin CL, Collins RL. Remains of land mammals from the Miocene of the Chesapeake Bay region. Smithsonian Miscelleneous Collections. 1950; 1161-21.
paleontology.

Gentry, Anthea. Regnum animale...,Ed.2 (M.J. Brisson,1762): Proposed rejection, with the conservation of the mammalian generic names Philander (Marsupialia),Pteropus (Chiroptera), Glis,Cuniculus and Hydrochoerus (Rodentia),Meles, Lutra and Hyaena (Carnivora),Tapirus (Perissodactyla), Tragulus and Giraffa (Artiocactyla). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 1994; 51(2):135-146.
taxonomy.

Geroudet, P. Le tapir pinchaque doit etre protégé en Equateur. [The tapir (T. pinchaque) should be protected in equatorial regions.]. Biol. Conserv. 1970; 2(2):139-140. [Title translation by Julian Halliday.]
biology.

Gill. A new species of tapir from Guatemala. American Journal of Science. 1870; ser 2(50):142.
taxonomy.

Gill. Title unknown. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia. 1865; (17):183.
Type reference for Baird's tapir.
taxonomy.

Ginsburg L; de Broin F; Crouzel R; Duranthon F; Escuillie F; Juillard F, and Lassaube S. Les vertebres du Miocene Inferieur de Barbotan-les-Thermes (Gers). [The vertebrates of the lower Miocene of Barbotan-les-Thermes (Gers).]. Annals De Paleontologie. 1991; 77161-216.
paleontology.

Glanz, W. E. Mammalian densiities at protected versus hunted sites in central Panama. Robinson, J. G. and Redford, K. H., eds. Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation; 1991; pp. 163-173.
hunting and reserves.
biology/ conservation.

Gloger. Gemeinnütziges Hand- und Hilfsbuch er Natürgeschichte. . . .; 1842;(Vol. 1): p. 124.
taxonomy.

Gmelin, J. F. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secondum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Regnum Animale. Class I, Mammalia. 13th edition, revised by J.F. Gmelin ed. Lipsiae: G.E. Beir; 1788;(Vol. I): p. 216?. 232 pp.
Type reference for Tapir americanus; various taxonomic notations on p. 216.
taxonomy.

Goldman, probably E. A. Smithsonian Misc. Coll.1920; (69):81, 83.
Cataloging a skull Herskkovitz says is mislabelled; there is probably more information than this and probably more pages on tapirs.
taxonomy.

Gonzalez, G. and Navarro, L. D. Diversity and conservation of Mexican mammals. Mares, M. A. and Schmidly, D. J., eds. Latin American mammalogy: History, Biodiversity, and Conservation. Norman, Oklahoma and London: University of Oklahoma Press; 1991; pp. 97-123.
biology/ conservation.

Goodwin. Mammals of Costa Rica. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1946; (87):449-451.
taxonomy/ morphometry.

Goodwin. Title unknown. Journal of Mammalogy. 1946; (27):91.
taxonomy.

Goudot, Justin. Nouvelles observations sur le Tapir pinchaque. Comptes Rendus, Academie Sciences, Paris. 1843; (16):331-334.
English Translation available: Recent observations on the Tapir Pinchaque.
biology.

Gray. London Med. Repos. 1821; (15):306.
Probably type specimen for Family Tapiridae.
taxonomy.

Gray, J. E. Hand-List of the Edentate, Thick-Skinned and Ruminant Mammals in the British Museum; 1873; p. 34.
This is apparently about a lowland tapir misclassified as T. pinchaque. The reference was also given by Gray as "Cat. Carn. Pach. et Edent. p. 259".
taxonomy.

Gray JE. Description of a young tapir from the Peruvian Amazons. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1872; 624-625.
One plate: XLV.

Gray JE. Notes on a new species of tapir (Tapirus leucogenys) from the snowy regions of the Cordilleras of Ecuador and on the young spotted tapirs of North America. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1872:483-492.
taxonomy/ biology/ neonatology.

Gray JE. Notice of a new species of American tapir, with observations on the skulls of Tapirus, Rhinochoerus, and Elasmognathus in the collection of the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1867:876-886.
taxonomy/ musculoskeletal/ anatomy.

Gregory WK. Studies in comparative myology and osteology, No. V. - on the anatomy of the preorbital fossae of Equidae and other ungulates. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1920; 42265-283.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Grimwood IR. Notes on the distribution and status of some Peruvian mammals. Special Publication 21 (Appendix II): Recommendations on the conservation of wildlife and the establishment of national parks and reserves in Peru. Bronx, New York: American Committee on International Wildlife Protection and New York Zoological Society; 1968; pp. 77-78.
biology/ conservation.

Grimwood IR. Notes on the distribution and status of some Peruvian mammals 1986. Special Publications of the American Committee for International Wildlife Protection, New York Zoological Society. 1969; 21:1-86.
biology/ conservation.

Grubb, et al. Title unknown: Publication unknown.
Distribution of mountain tapir.
distribution.

Grzimek, B. Grzimek's Encyclopedia: McGraw-Hill, Inc.; 1990; Mammals, Vol. 4.
biology.

Grzimek, B. Grzimeks Tierleben(13): pp. 17-35.
biology.

Grzimek, B. Title unknown. International Zoo News. 1968; (May).
biology.

Guerin C, Eisenmann V. Les tapirs (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) du Miocene Superieur d'Europe occidentale. [The tapirs (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the upper Miocene of western Europe.]. Geobios. 1994; 27113-127.
paleontology.

Guglielmone, A. A. and Mangold A. J. (Unidad Regional de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal, C.C. 228, 4400 Salta, Argentina.). Finding of Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy, Argentina. Communication. Veterinaria Argentina. 1986; 3(22):167-168.
Amblyomma ovale was found for the first time in the Province of Jujuy, Argentina in 1982, when a male was collected on tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in the Department of Santa Barbara, and for the first time in the Province of Salta in 1984, when 2 males and 9 females were detected on a dog in the Department of Oran.
parasitology.

Guglielmone, A. A.; Mangold, A. J., and Aufranc, C. R. (Grupo de Salud Animal, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Rafaela, CC 22, CP 2300 Rafaela (Santa Fe), Argentina). Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes pararicinus (Ixodidae) and Otobius megnini (Argasidae) in realtion to the phytogeography of Argentina. Annales De Parasitologie Humaine Et Comparee. 1992; 67(3):91-93.
parasitology.

Guinan, Yvonne Nodlaig. Resolving people-park conflicts at Sangay National park, Ecuador: A case study of Alao [M.Sc. dissertation]. 1992 Sep. School of Agricultural and Forestry Science,University College of North Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.
Ecuador's Sangay National Park, important for its watershed value and high biodiversity, is home to depleting numbers of Tapirus pinchaque (mountain tapir). Under threat from man's hunting and burning activities, the mountain tapir represents one example of the failure of the park to fulfil its objectives. The study investigated conflicting interests of the local people and park authorities, focussing on the boundary village of Alao. A broad household survey revealed aspirations to live in harmony with their surroundings, not reflected in their behaviour. The recommendations aim at reducing conflicts between the interest groups by integrating effective law enforcement, conservation education, alternative land use and economic incentives. Local participation and the need for demonstrable links between development and conservation are vital to exploit the general willingness to adopt more sustainable lifestyles apparent from the survey.
conservation.

Gumilla. Title unknown.
Gumilla was an early explorer who described the tapir.
biology/ taxonomy.

Gun, SC et al. The feeding and breeding of Tapirus bairdii. Chin. Wildl. 1988; 1(17):22-23.
Note: The volume and issue may be wrong.
husbandry.

Haarmann and K. Morphological and histological investigations on the neo cortex of several perissodactyla. Acta Anatomica. 1974; 90(2):285-299.
anatomy/ taxonomy/ neurology.

Haffer, J. Geoloic-climatic history and zoogeographic significance of the Uraba region in northwestern Colombia. Caldasia. 1970; (10):603-636.
distribution.

Hagman. Archiv Rass.-Ges. Biol.; 1908; vol. 5 p. 22 and Fig. 1.
taxonomy.

Hall, E. R and Dalquest, W. W. The Mammals of Veracruz: University of Kansas Public Museum of Natural History; vol. 14 pp. 165-362.
Interesting information on tapirs cited by Grzimek and Mondolfi.
biology/ distribution.

Handley, C. O. Jr. Checklist of the mammals of Panama. Wenzel, R. L. and Tipton, V. J., eds. Ectoparasites of Panama. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History; 1966.
distribution/ parasitology.

Harper, F. Extinct and vanishing mammals of the Old World: Special Publication, American Committee for International Wild Life Protection; 1945;(12):1-850.
Note: Cited on the Smithsonian's Web page for T. indicus.
biology/ distribution.

Hatcher, J. B. Recent and fossil tapirs. The American Journal of Science (Fourth Series). 1896; 1(3):161-180.
taxonomy/ paleontology.

Hay, OP. Description of some Pleistocene vertebrates found in the United States. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. FIND YEAR; (58):83-146.
Tapirus tennesseae.
paleontology.

Hay, OP. The Pleistocene of North America and its vertebrated animals from the states east of the Mississippi River and from the Canadian provinces east of longitude 95°. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 1923; (No. 322).

Hay, O. P. and Cook, H. J. Fossil vertebrates collected near or in association with human artifacts at localities near Colorado, Texas; Frederick, Oklahoma; and Folsom, New Mexico. Proc. Col. Mus. Nat. Hist. 1930; 9(2):17.
Tapirus "haysii".

Hediger, H. A Short Zoological Study of the Tropics. 2nd ed. Basel: Verlag f. Recht und Gesellschaft; 1948. 224 pages .
Note: Need to find title in German.

Henry, J. S., Lance, V. A., and Conlon, J. M. (Department of Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska 68178). Primary structure of pancreatic polypeptide from four species of Perissodactyla (Prezwalski's horse, zebra, rhino, tapir). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 1991 Dec; 84(3):440-446.
Leu-Thr-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr.NH2. Zebra PP was identical to Prezwalski's horse PP, rhinoceros PP contained three substitutions relative to the horse (Ser for Ala1, Leu for Met3, and Glu for Gln16), and tapir PP contained one substitution relative to the horse ( Leu for Met3). On the basis of morphological characteristics and the fossil record, the rhinocerotids are classified with the tapirids in the suborder Ceratomorpha, whereas the horse and zebra belong to a seperate suborder, Hippomorpha. On the basis of structural similarity of the PP molecules, however, it would appear that the tapir is more closely related to the horse than to the rhinoceros. These observations provide a further example of the need for extreme caution when inferring taxonomic or phylogenic relationships between species from the structures of homologous peptides.
taxonomy/ genetics.

Henry, J. S., Lance, V. A., and Conlon, J. M. Purification and characterization of insulin and the C-peptide of proinsulin from the Prezwalski's horse, zebra, rhino, and tapir (Perissodactyla). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 1993 Feb; 89(2):299-308.
Within the order Perissodactyla, the primary structure of insulin has been strongly conserved. Insulin from Prezwalski's horse and the mountain zebra (suborder Hippomorpha) is the same as that from the domestic horse and differs from insulin from the white rhinoceros and mountain tapir (suborder Ceratomorpha) by a single substitution (Gly--> Ser) at position 9 in the A-chain. This component was probably formed during the extraction of the pancreas with acidified ethanol. The amino acid sequence of the C-peptide of proinsulin has been less well conserved. Zebra C-peptide comprises 31 amino acid residues and differs from Prezwalski's horse and domestic horse C-peptide by one substitution (Gln30-->Pro). Rhino C-peptide was isolated only in a truncated form corresponding to residues (1-23) of intact C-peptide. Its amino acid sequence contains three substitutions compared with the corresponding region of horse C-peptide. It is postulated that the substitution (Pro23-->Thr) renders rhino C-peptide more liable to proteolytic cleavage by a chymotrypsin-like enzyme than horse C-peptide. C-peptide could not be identified in the extract of tapir pancreas, suggesting that proteolytic degradation may have been more extnesive than in the rhino. In contrast to the ox and pig (order Artiodactyla), there was no evidence for the expression of more than one proinsulin gene in the species of Perissodactyla examined.
endocrinology/ taxonomy/ genetics.

Heran, I. Ear marking in perissodactyla. Lynx (Prague). 1989; 25:29-40.
biology.

Hermann, R. Ein neuer tapir aus Brasilien und ost Bolivien [A new tapir from Brazil and Eastern Bolivia] [re: Tapirus anulipes]. Mitteillungen Aus Dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin. 1924; 11:167-168.
taxonomy/ biology.

Hershkovitz, P. Mammals of northern Colombia, preliminary report no. 7: tapirs (genus Tapirus) with a systematic review of America species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 1954; 103(3329):456-496.
taxonomy.

Hertzog, R. E. Xylazine in exotic animal practice. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings; 1975: 40-42.
anesthesia.

. Heuvelmans, Bernard. On the track of unknown animals. New York: Hill and Wang; 1965; pp. 9-10.
Note: First published in French as, Sur la Piste des Bêtes Ignorées, 1955.
Gives an account of Cuvier's declaration in 1812 that there would be no more large quadrupeds found; seven years later the Malayan tapir was described.

Hilliard, Daniel. Baird's tapir conservation in Costa Rica: ZCOG coordinates volunteer effort to assist tapir research. Zoo Conservation Outreach Group News. 1997; III(II):2.
biology/ conservation.

Hislop, JA. The distribution of elephant, rhinoceros, seladang and tapir in Malaya's National Park. Malayan Nature Journal (Special Issue). 1961:95-99.
biology/ conservation.

Hislop, JA. The story of a tapir. Malayan Nature Journal. 1950; 5(2):92-95.
biology.

Hofmann, L. Zur anatomie des mannlichen elefanten-tapir-und hippopotomas-genitale [On the anatomy of the male genitalia of elephants, tapirs, and hippopotomus]. Zoologische Jahrbucher Abteilung Fur Anatomie Und Ontogenie Der Tiere. 1923; 45:161-212.
anatomy/ reproduction.

Hooijer, DA. Dental anomaly in Tapirus terrestris. Bijdragen Tot De Dierkunde. 1961; 31:63-64.
anatomy/ gastrointestinal.

Hooijer, DA. On fossil and prehistoric remains of Tapirus from Java, Sumatra and China. Meded Mus Leiden. 1947; 27253-299.
paleontology.

Horan, A. An outline of tapir management. Proceedings of Assoc. of British Wild Animal Keepers; 1983: 24-29.
husbandry.

Hsu, T. C. and Benirschke, K. An Atlas of mammalian chromosomes. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1975; 9(folio 436): p. unpaged.
genetics.

Hughes, F.; LeClerc-Cassan, M., and Marc, J. P. Anesthesie des animaux non domestiques, essai d'un nouvel anesthesique: L'association tiletamine-zolazepam (zoletil N.D.) [Anesthesia of non-domestic animals: there will be a new anesthetic: tiletamine-zolazepam]. Recueil De Medicine Veterinaire De L'Ecole D'Alfort. 1986; 162(3):427-431.
anesthesia.

Hulbert, R. C. Jr. The giant tapir, Tapirus haysii, from Lesley Shell Pit 1A and other Florida Irvingtonian localities. Bulletin Florida State Museum Natural History. 1995; 37515-551.
paleontology.

Hunsaker, D. and Hahn, T. Vocalization of the South American tapir (T. terrestris). Animal Behaviour. 1969; (13):69-74.
biology/ behavior.

Jackson, C. E. Malayan Tapir. Malayan Nature Journal. 1950; 5(2):92-95.
biology.

Jacobi, E. F. Hippopotomus, tapir, and manatee house at Amsterdam Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook. 1969; 9:63-64.
husbandry.

Janis, C. The evolutionary strategy of the Equidae and the origins of rumen and cecal digestion. Evolution. 1976; 30:756-774.
biology/ taxonomy/ nutrition/ gastrointestinal.

Janis C. Tapirs as living fossils. In: Eldredge, N. and Stanley, S. M., eds. Living Fossils: Springer Verlag; 1984; pp. 80-86.
biology/ paleontology.

Janis, C. M. A climatic explanation for patterns of evolutionary diversity in ungulate mammals. Palaeontology. 1989; 32463-481.
paleontology.

Janssen D.L.; Rideout B.A., and Edwards M.E. Medical Management of Captive Tapirs (Tapirus sp.). American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Proceedings. Nov 1996. Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. Pp. 1-11. [Article in HTML].

Janssen D.L.; Rideout B.A., and Edwards M.E. Veterinary aspects of the tapir Taxon Advisory Group. AZA Proceedings From Honolulu; Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, CA 92112, USA. 8 pp.

Janzen, D. H. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.). Digestive seed predation by a Costa Rican Baird's tapir. Biotropica. 1981; 13(2, supplement):59-63.
nutrition/ biology.

Janzen, D. H. (Dep. Biol., Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA). Seeds in tapir dung in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. Brenesia. 1982; 19(20):129-135.
nutrition/ biology.

Janzen, D. H. Tapirus bairdii (Danto, Danto, Baird's tapir). Janzen, D. H., ed. Costa Rican Natural History. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press; 1983; pp. 496-497.
biology.

Janzen, D. H. Wild plant acceptability to a captive Costa Rican Baird's tapir. Brenesia. 1982; 19(20):99-128.
nutrition/ biology.

Jefferson, G. T. Late Cenozoic tapirs (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) of western North America. Contributions in Science. 1989; 4061-22.
paleontology.

Jefferson, G. T. A new specimen of tapir from Rancho la Brea. Current Research in the Pleistocene. 1986; 3;68-69.
paleontology.

Jensen, J. M. Beta-hemolytic streptococcus associated with enteritis in a Malayan tapir. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine. 1978; 9(3):88-90.
bacterial disease/ gastrointestinal.

Jones, M. L. Longevity of ungulates in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook. 1993; 32.
biology/ husbandry.

Jorgenson, J. P. Order Perissodactyla/Family Tapiridae. Dollinger, P., ed. Identification manual, Volume 1a. Mammalia: Carnivora to Artiodactyla. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Lausanne, Switzerland: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora; 1985; p. 199.
biology/ taxonomy.

Kallenius, G.; Bolske, G.; Innerstedt, A.; Ramberg, M.; Roken, B. O., and Svenson, S. B. (Enheten for bakteriologi, Smittskyddsinstitutet, Stockholm.). Did the tapir infect the ape or vice versa? A new technique for tracing tuberculosis. Lakartidningen (SWEDEN). 1993 Dec 22; 90(51-52):4658-4659.
tuberculosis/ bacterial disease.

Kasman, L. H.; McCowan, B., and Lasley, B. L. (San Diego Zoo, Res. Dep., POB 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551). Pregnancy detection in tapirs by direct urinary estrone sulfate analysis. Zoo Biology. 1985; 4(3):301-306.
reproduction/ endocrinology/ husbandry.

Kathariner, F. L. Das fubskelett des tapirs [The bones of the tapir foot]. Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift Jena. 1914; 13:422-423.
musculoskeletal/ anatomy.

Khan bin Momin Khan, Mohd. Status and action plan of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). In: Brooks, Daniel M.; Bodmer, Richard E., and Matola, Sharon, compilers. Tapirs - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK; 1997; pp. 23-28.
conservation/ biology.

Kirshshofer, R. Das verhalten der giraffengazzelle, elenantilope und des flachland tapirs bei der geburt: einige Bemerkungen zur vermehrungsrate und generationsfolge dieserartem im Frankfurter Zoo [The behavior of the gerenuk, tragelaphus oryx and South American lowland tapir at birth; some observations on the rate of reproduction and generations of these species in the Frankfurt Zoo]. Zeitschrift Für Tierpsychologie. 1963; 20:143-159.
reproduction/ behavior.

Kitchens, J. A. Tapir and associated Pleistocene mammals from Archer County, Texas [Tapirus veroensus]. Texas Journal of Science. 1988; 40(3):363-366.
paleontology.

Kladetzky, J. Atlas und epistropheus vom tapir (erganzung zum Beitrag: zur entwicklung des dens epistropheis). [The first and second neck vertebra of the tapir (addition to the article: to the evolution of the second neck vertebra)]. Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch. 1956; 97:193-201.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Klatts, or KLAITS B. G. The moving mesaxonic manus, a comparison of tapirs and rhinoceroses. Mammalia. 1972; 36(1):126-145.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal.

Klingel, H. Communication in the Perissodactyla. Sebeok, T. A., ed. Bloomington, Indiana; London: Indiana University Press; 1977; pp. 715-727.
behavior/ biology/ taxonomy.

Klos, H. G. Rhino, tapir and okapi house at West Berlin Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook. 1966; 6:127-128.
husbandry.

Koenigswald, R. V. Die tapirreste aus dem aquitan von Ulm und Mainz. [Tapir remains from the Aquitan from Ulm and Mainz]. Palaeontographica Stuttgart. 1930; 73:1-29.
paleontology.

Kono, N.; Shitsiri, S.; Hiramatsu, H.; Tasaka, K., and Saheki, Y. Some findings in thoracic cavities of Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). J. Jpn. Assoc. Zool. Gard. Aquariums. 1989; 31(1):11-13.
anatomy/ respiratory.

Kourist, W. Frühe Haltung von Großsäugetieren, Teil 4: Die ersten zweihörnigen Nashörner, Tapire und Wale in den Zoologischen Gärten und anderen Tiersammlungen. [Early holdings of large mammals, Part 4: The first two-horned rhinoceros, tapirs, and whales in zoos and other animal collections]. Zool. Beitrage. 1973; 19(1):137-150.
husbandry.

Krumbiegel, I. Beitrage zur Jugendentivicklung des Schabrackentapirs (Rhinochoerus indicus [Cuv.]). [Contributions on juvenile development in Malayan tapirs (Rhinochoerus indicus [Cuv.])]. Der Zool. Garten N.F. 1936; 8(4/6):96-99.
behavior/ biology/ reproduction/ neonatology.

Kruska, D. Cerebralization evolution of the brain and changes in brain size as a cause of domestication within the order Perissodactyla and a comparison with the order Artiodactyla. Zeitschrift Fuer Zoologische Systematik Und Evolutionsforschung. 1973; 11(2):81-103.
taxonomy/ neurology/ anatomy.

Kuehn, G. Tapiridae. In: Fowler ME, ed. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, London: WB Saunders; 1986; pp. 931-934.
Note: PADILLA GIVES PP. 759-763.
veterinary medicine/ taxonomy.

Kutschmann, K.; Albrecht, G., and Neumann, M. Zur anwendung von diazepam beim zootier. [On the application of diazepam for the zoo animal.]. Erkrankungen Zootiere; 1986: 185-188.
Note: PADILLA GIVES 28:105-108.
anesthesia.

Kutzer, E. and Grunberg, W. Sarcoptes raude (Sarcopti tapiri nov. spec.) bei tapiren (Tapirus terrestris). [Sarcoptic mange (Sarcopti tapiri nov. spec.) among tapirs (Tapirus terrestris).] . Zeitschrift Für Parasitenkunde. 1967; 29:46-60.
parasitology/ dermatology.

Leat, W. M. F.; Northrop, C. A.; Buttress, N., and Jones, D. M. (ARC Inst. Animal Physiology, Barbraham, Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK.). Plasma lipids and lipoproteins of some members of the order Perissodactyla (Tapirus indicus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, B. 1979; 63(2):275-281.
taxonomy/ nutrition.

Lechner, W. Ueber die tubendivertikel (luftsacke) beim tapir. Ein beitrag zur anatomie des tapirs (Tapirus americanus). [The cecum of the tapir. A contribution to the anatomy of the tapir (Tapirus americanus)]. Anatomischer Anzeiger. 1932; 74:250-265.
anatomy/ gastrointestinal.

Lee, A. R. Management guidelines for the welfare of zoo animals: Tapirs (Tapirus spp.). London: The Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland; 1993 Sep. ISBN: 0963-1712.
husbandry.

Lee, C. C.; Zainal-Zahari, Z., and Krishnasamy, M. New host record of Armillifer moniliformis (Diesing, 1835; Sambon,1922) in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). Kajian Veterinar. 1986; 18(2):195-197.
parasitology.

Leffler, S. R. Fossil mammals from the Elk River Formation, Cape Blanco, Oregon. Journal of Mammalogy. 1964; 4553-61.
paleontology.

Lekagul, B. and McNeely, J. A. Asian or Malayan tapir. In: Mammals of Thailand: Bangkok, Kurusapha Press; 1977; pp. 648-650.
biology.

Levin, Arthur. Odd toed hoofed animals: II Tapirs. 1-3.
Note: Mimeographed; dated 1966; unpublished; part of TRI collection; not sure where it came from.

Lindberg, Arne. Ein albinotischer Flachlandtapir (T. terrestris) in Kolmårdens Djurpark. [An albino lowland tapir (T. terrestris) in the Kolmarden Zoo]. Der Zoologische Garten, Jena. 1984; 54(4/5):357-359.
biology.

Lindsay, E. H. Late Cenozoic mammals from northwestern Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 1684; 4:208-215.
paleontology.

Lock, R. Foot problems with tapirs at Twycross Zoo. Ratel. 1991; 18(5):141-143.
dermatology/ management/ musculoskeletal.

Lozano-Alarcón, F.; Bradley, G. A.; Houser, B. S., and Visvesvara, G. S. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri in a South American tapir. Vet. Pathol. 1997; (34):239-243.
Note: Request reprints from Fernando Lozano-Alarcón, DVM, MS, PhD, Arizona Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, 2831 North Freeway, Tucson, AZ 85705 (USA).
Abstract.
parasitology.

Lundelius, E. L. Jr.; Slaughter, B. H., and Churcher, C. S. Notes on American Pleistocene tapirs. Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences Misc. Publ.; 1976: 226-240.
paleontology.

MacDonald, J. R. Review of the Miocene Wounded Kneee faunas of southwestern South Dakota. Bulletin of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History. 1970; 8:1-81.
paleontology.

MacKinnon, K. Tapirs. In: MacDonald, D., ed. The Encyclodpaedia of Mammals, Volume 2. Toronto: George, Allen, Unwin; 1984.
taxonomy/ biology.

Mahler, A. E. (Dep. Biol., Univ. Miami, P.O. Box 249118, Coral Gables,FL 33124,USA). Activity budgets and use of exhibit space by South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in a zoological park setting. Zoo Biol. 1984; 3(1):35-46.
Six individuals of Tapirus terrestris (two adult males, one juvenile male, and three adult females) were observed the first three months of 1982 at Audubon Park and Zoological Garden. Data for fourteen behavioral states were collected by scan sampling at ten-minute intervals throughout the day and twice throughout the night in an open-air, mixed species exhibit. The data were analyzed to calculate activity budgets and space use. Sleeping, eating, foraging, walking and standing made up the major portions of the activity budgets. "Natural" activity patterns, as in the wild for browsing ungulates, were displayed under captivity in variously modified form. The characteristics of an individual, especially the reproductive state, affected both activity budget and space use. Zoo regimen significantly modified activity budgets and space use by the animals.
biology/ behavior.

Mallinson, Jeremy J. C. American tapir Tapirus terrestris juvenile to adult pelage. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust Annual Report. 1968; 5:ii.
biology/ husbandry/ neonatology.

Mallinson, Jeremy J. C. Establishing mammal gestation periods at the Jersey Zoological Park. International Zoo Yearbook. 1974; (14):184-187.
reproduction.

Mallinson, Jeremy J. C. Reproduction and development of Brazilian tapir, Tapirus terrestris. Annual Report of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. 1969; 6:47-52.
reproduction/ neonatology/ management.

Maluf, N. S. R. The kidney of tapirs: a macroscopical study. Anat Rec. 1991; 231(1):48-62.
renal/ anatomy.

Mann, P. C.; Bush, M.; Janssen, D. L.; Frank, E. S., and Montali, R. J. Clinicopathologic correlations of tuberculosis in large zoo animals. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assc. 1981; 179(11):1123-1129.
tuberculosis/ bacterial disease.

March Mifsut, Ignacio J. (Centro de Investigaciones Ecologicas del Sureste). Situacion actual del Tapir en Mexico [Current status of the tapir in Mexico] [Monograph]. Serie Monografica, Centro De Investigaciones Ecologicas Des Sureste. 1994; 141 p.
The Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) (Gill, 1865), is an endangered animal throughout all its present distribution. Some remnant populations can still be found in Mexico. Originally, this species was distributed in seven states of southern Mexico, but it is possible that the tapir could be already extinct in the states of Veracruz, Yucatan, and maybe also in Tabasco. In Mexico, the total original habitat for the tapir covered an extensive area which now has been reduced to less than a half. Based on reports from several authors as well as records generated by the author from 1984 to 1992, this paper presents 36 records of distribution of the tapir in southern Mexico. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the tapir occurs from the sea level to 1,900 meters in altitude and in several types of rainforest, savannahs, and cloud forests. The main characteristics of the tapir's habitat in some of the verified areas of its distribution are described and specific measures for the conservation of the species are proposed.
conservation/ biology.

Marsh, O. C. Note on Lophiodon from the Miocene of New Jersey. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1871; (23):9-10.
paleontology.

Marsh, O. C. Notice of some new vertebrate fossils. Amer. Jour. Sci. (14):249-256.
paleontology.

Marshall L.G. Geochronology and land-mammal biochronology of the transamerican faunal interchange. In. The great American biotic interchange. Stehli FG and Webb SD, eds. New York: Plenum Press; 1985; pp. 49-85.
paleontology.

Matola, S. News from the field: Belize. Tapir Conservation, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Newsletter. 1992(3).
conservation.

Matola, Sharon. Tapir Specialist Group. Species. Newsletter of the Species Survival Commission. IUCN. 1996; 26/27:94-95.
conservation.

Matola, Sharon. Tapir Specialist Group Report. Species. Newsletter of the Species Survival Commission. IUCN. 1991; 16:59.
biology/ husbandry/ conservation.

Matola, Sharon; Cuarón, Alfredo D., and Rubio-Torgler, Heidi. Status and action plan of the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) / Evaluación del estado y plande acción del tapir Mesoamericano (Tapirus bairdii). In: Brooks, Daniel M.; Bodmer, Richard E., and Matola, Sharon, compilers. Tapirs - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK; 1997; pp. 29-45 (English), 89-106 (Spanish).
conservation/ biology.

Matola, Sharon and Todd, Sheryl, eds. Ruben Nuñez' mountain tapir conservation outreach. Tapir Conservation. 1997 Oct; (7):13-14.
conservation.

Matola, Sharon and Todd, Sheryl, eds. Tapir Specialist Group: Conservation on the Edges. Species. 1998 Jun 30; (30):60-61.
biology/ conservation.

Matola, Sharon and Todd, Sheryl, eds. Tapir Specialist Group: Current field work. Species. Newsletter of the Species Survival Commission. IUCN. 1997; 29:52-53.
conservation.

Matthew, W. D. Granger W. New ungulates from the Ardyn Obo Formation of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates. 1925; (195):1-12.
paleontology.

Matthew, W. D. and Granger, W. New fossil mammals from the Pliocene of Sze-Chuan, China. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1923; (48):563-598.
paleontology.

Matthew, W. D. and Granger W. New mammals from the Shara Murun Eocene of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates. 1925; (196):1-11.
paleontology.

Matthew, W. D. and Granger, W. The smaller perissodactyls of the Irdin Manha Formation, Eocene of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates. 1925; (199):1-9.
paleontology.

Mazur, G. and Braunitzer, G. Perissodactyla: die primarstruktur der hamoglobine eines flachlandtapirs (Tapirus terrestris): Glutaminsaure in position 2 der B-Ketten. [The primary structure of the hemoglobins from a lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris, perissodactyla): Glutamic acid in position 2 of the .beta. chains.]. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 1984; 365(9):1097-1106.
Note: Affil: Max-Planck-Inst. Biochem.,Abt. Proteinchem., Martinsried bei Muenchen, Muenchen FRG.
The hemoglobins from a lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) were analyzed and the complete primary structure is described. The globin chains were separated on CM cellulose column in 8m urea and the amino-acid sequences were determined in the liquid phase sequenator.The results show that globin consists of two .alpha. chains (.alpha.I and .alpha.II) and .beta. major and .beta. minor components. The .alpha. chains differ only at one position: .alpha.I contains aspartic acid and .alpha.II glycine. The .beta. chains are heterogeneous: aspartic and glutamic acid were found at positions .beta.21 and .beta.73 of the .beta. major components and asparagine and serine at position .beta.139. In the .beta. minor components four positions were found with more than one amino acid, namely .beta.2, .beta.4, .beta.6, and .beta.56.
hematology/ genetics.

McClearn, D. The rise and fall of a mutalism? Coatis, tapirs, and ticks on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Biotropica. 1992; 24(2a):220-222.
biology/ behavior/ parasitology.

McClure, H. E. A wounded tapir. Malay. Nat. J. 1963; (17):266-267.
biology.

Mead, J. I.; Roth, E. L.; Van Devender, T. R., and Steadman, D. W. The late Wisconsinan vertebrate fauna from Deadman Cave, Southern Arizona. San Diego Society of Natural History, Transactions. 1984; 20(14):247-276.
biology/ paleontology.

Medway, Lord. Food of a tapir, Tapirus indicus. Malayan Nature Journal. 1974; 28(2):90-93.
Reports the composition of vegetation browsed by T. indicus in a selectively logged lowland area of Trengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Browsing was very selective and caused little damage. The browsed species were all typical of secondary forest or deforested land.
nutrition/ biology.

Medway, Lord. The Malay tapir in late Quaternary Borneo. Sarawak Mus. J. 1960; 8(15-16):?

Medway, Lord. Mammals of Borneo. Monographs of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1977; (7):43.
distribution.

Meier, J. E. Treatment of salmonellosis. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine. 1982; 13(1):26-29.
salmonellosis/ bacterial disease/ gastrointestinal.

Meierhenry, E. F. and Clausen, L. W. Sarcoptic mange in collared peccaries. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1977; 171(9):983-984.
parasitology/ dermatology.

Mercolli, C. and Yanosky, A. A. Estimates of tapir (Tapirus terrestris) habitat selection and activity level at el Bagual Ecological Reserve, Formosa, Argentina. Misc. Zool. 1991; (15):227-231.
Note: Affiliation: Reserva Ecologia el Bagual, Salta 994, 3600 Formosa, Argentina.
biology/ behavior.

Merriam, J. C. Tapir remains from late Cenozoic beds of the Pacific Coast region. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology, Geological Sciences. 1913; 7(9):169-175.
paleontology.

Michaux, J.; Sige, B., and Sudre, J. Presence de Tapirus arvernensis (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) dans le Pliocene superior de Bassan (Herault). [Tapirus arvernensis (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the upper Pliocene of Bassan (Herault)]. Comptes Rendus Somm. Soc. Geol. Fr. 1984; (4):216-236.
paleontology.

Miller-Edge, Michele and Scott, Amsel. Carfentanil, ketamine, xylazine combination (CKX) for immobilization of exotic ungulates: Clinical experiences in bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros) and mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque). Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. 1994; pp. 192-195.
Note: Miller-Edge, Michele DVM, PhD; Scott, Amsel, DVM - Affiliation: Los Angeles Zoo. NOTE: Another source gives authors as Miller-Edge and Amsel, M.S.
CKX was used to immobilize 3 adult and 1 juvenile mountain tapirs. Subjective quality of anesthesia was judged to be good-excellent. (Xylazine 0.103 mg/kg, ketamine 0.26 mg/kg, and carfentanil 5.4 ug/kg). Induction and recovery were smooth and without complications. Due to the length of procedures performed, anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and propofol. Propofol given as slow iv bolus to effect (~0.3 mg/kg). Heart rate, respiratory rate, and O2 saturation were stable throughout the procedures. All animals were reversed with naltrexone at a rate of 100:1 and yohimbine (0.13 mg/kg iv). No procedures were performed with carfentanil as a sole induction agent in mountain tapirs.
anesthesia.

Miller, Wade E. and Carranza-Castañeda, Oscar. Late Cenozoic mammals from central Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 1984; 4(2):216-236.
paleontology.

Moriena, R. A. and Lombardero, O. J. First record for Argentina of Kiluluma longipene, parasite of Tapirus terrestris. Veterinaria, Argentina. 1979; 2(2):127-130.
parasitology.

Murie, J. On the Malayan tapir, Rhinochoerus sumatranus (Gray). Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. 1872; (6):131-169.
anatomy.

Nair, N. D.; Valsala, K. V.; Mariyamma, K. I.; Ramachandran, K. M., and Rajan, A. Tuberculosis in a tapir (Tapirus indicus). Indian Veterinary Journal. 1985; 62(12):1086-1087.
tuberculosis/ bacterial disease.

Naranjo, E. J. and Cruz, E. Ecologia del tapir (Tapirus bairdii) en la
Reserva de la Biosfera La Sepultura, Chiapas, Mexico. Acta Zoologica Mexicana. 1998; (73):111-125.
biology/ conservation.

Naranjo Pinera, Eduardo. Abundancia y uso de habitat del tapir (Tapirus bairdii) en un bosque tropical humedo de Costa Rica. Vida Silvestre Neotropical. 1995; 4(1):20-30.
conservation/ biology.

Naranjo Pinera, Eduardo. Habitos de alimentacion del tapir (Tapirus bairdii) en un bosque tropical humedo de Costa Rica. Vida Silvestre Neotropical. 1995; 4(1):32-37.
conservation/ biology.

Naundorff, Elisabeth. Meine Begegnung mit einem Bergtapir (T. pinchaque) [On my meeting with a mountain tapir]. Der Zool. Garten N.F. 1953; 20(1):51-52.
Note: DZG starts with 1957 in the Boulder library.
biology.

Neuville, H. Sur l'appareil respiratoire de Tapirus indicus. [On the respiratory apparatus of Tapirus indicus]. Bull. Du Mus. Paris. 1933; (5):346.
respiratory/ anatomy.

Nicaragua Ministerio de Agric. El danto o tapir en Nicaragua. [The danto or tapir in Nicaragua]. Serie De Publicaciones Del Album De Vida Silvestre De Nic. 1977.
biology.

Ojasti, J. Hunting and conservation of mammals in Latin America. Acta Zoologica Fennica. 1984(172):177-181.
conservation.

Ojasti, J. Ungulates and large rodents of South America. Tropical Savannas. 1983:427-439.
biology.

Okamoto, Masahiro. Comparative digestibility in several artificially fed herbivores. Journal of the Rakuno Gakuen University. 1997; 22(1):155-157.
Okamoto compares digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, and cellulose among 5 ruminants and 3 non-ruminants (one of which is a Malaysian tapir, one a horse, and the third a hippo). The tapir is shown to be better than horses at digesting, but worse than ruminants. Interesting differences also between the hind-gutters (horse and tapir) and the hippo (front-gutter).

Olmos, Fábio. Tapirs as seed dispersers and predators / Tapires como dispersores y depredadores de semillas / Antas como dispersores e predadores de sementes. In: Brooks, Daniel M.; Bodmer, Richard E., and Matola, Sharon, compilers. Tapirs - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK; 1997; pp. 3-9 (English), 67-74 (Spanish), 126-133 (Portuguese).
conservation/ biology.

Olrog, C. C. La situacion presente de los carnivoros y ungulados argentinos. [The present situation of the carnivores and ungulates of Argentina]. Reunion Iberoam. Zool. Vertebr. 1977; (1):619-623.
biology/ conservation.

Olsen, S. J. Age and faunal relationship of Tapiravus remains from Florida. Journal of Paleontology. 1960; (34):164-167.
paleontology.

Oria, J. Estudo embryologico do Tapirus americanus. 1: Nota previa: Annexos embryonarios e typo de placentacao [Embryological study of the American tapir]. Anais Da Academia Brasileira De Ciencias. 1937(9):263-267.
reproduction/ biology.

Ormrod, S. Milk analysis of the South American tapir (T. terrestris). International Zoo Yearbook. 1967; (7):157-158.
neonatology/ nutrition.

Osborn H.F. and Wortman J.L. Perissodactyls of the lower Miocene White River beds. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1895; (7):343-375.
paleontology.

Otera de la Espriella, R. La danta, una riqueza sin explotar. [The tapir, a richness without exploitation.]. Rev ESSO Agric. 1973; 19(2):9-12.
biology/ conservation.

Overall, K. L. Coatis (Nasua nasua), Tapirs (T. bairdi) and ticks a case of mammalian interspecific grooming. Biotropica. 1980; 12(2):158.
biology/ parasitology/ behavior.

Owen, R. On the anatomy of the American tapir (Tapirus americanus Gmel.). Proceedings of the Zoological Scoiety of London. 1830:161-164.
Note: Given in Walker as: Proc. Comm. Sci. and Corres. Zool. Soc. Lond., pt. 1, pp. 161-163, 1830-1831.
anatomy.

Padilla, Miguel and Robert C. Dowler. Tapirus terrestris. Mammalian Species. 1994; 481:8 p.
husbandry.

Pajak, AF III. The second record of Tapirus from the Temecula Valley, Southern California, and biostratigraphic implications. Abstracts of Proceedings, 1993 Desert Research Symposium (J. Reynolds, Ed.) San Bernardino County Museum Association Quarterly. 1993; 40(2):30.

Paras-Garcia, Alberto; Hernandez, Sonia; Foerster, Carlos, and Leandro, Danilo. Immobilization of Free-Ranging Baird's Tapirs (Tapirus bairdii). Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. 1996; 12-17.

Parker, W. N. On some points in the anatomy of the Indian tapir (Tapirus indicus). Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 1882; 768-777.
anatomy.

Paula Couto, C. de (Inst. Geocienc., Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS.). Fossil mammals of the Pleistocene of Jacupiranga State of Sao Paulo Brazil. Anais Da Academia Brasilerira De Ciencias. 1980; 52(1):135-142.
biology/ paleontology.

Peres CA. Ungulate ectoparasite removal by black caracaras and pale-winged trumpeters in Amazonian forests. Wilson Bulletin. 1996; 1(108):70-175.

Peterson, O. A. New species from the Oligocene of the Uinta. Annals of the Carnegie Museum. 1931; (21):61-79.
paleontology.

Pilgrim, G. E. The perissodactyla of the Eocene of Burma. Mem. Geol. Sur. of India. Pal. Indica. N.S. 1925; (8):1-28, 2 pls.

Pleticha, P. The Malay tapir (Tapirus indicus). Ziva. 1981; 29(1):36.
biology.

Pournelle, G. H. When does a Malay tapir lose its spots and stripes? Zoonooz. 1966; 39(11):6-7.
biology/ neonatology.

Prothero, D. R. and Schoch, R. M. Classification of the perissodactyla. In. The evolution of the perissodactyls (D.R. Prothero and R.M. Schoch, eds.): Oxford University Press; 1989; pp. 13-23.
taxonomy/ paleontology.

Radinsky, LB. Early Tertiary tapiroidea of Asia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1965; (129):183-263.
paleontology.

Radinsky, LB. Evolution of the tapiroid skeleton from Heptodon to Tapirus. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 1965; (134):69-103.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal/ paleontology.

Radinsky, LB. A new genus of Eocene tapiroid (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Journal of Palaeontology. 1966; (40):740-742.
paleontology.

Radinsky, LB. Origin and early evolution of North American tapiroidea. Bulletin of ThePeabody Museum of Natural History. 1963; (17):1-115.
paleontology.

Radinsky LB. The perissodactyl hallux. American Museum Novitates. 1963; (2145):1-8.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal/ paleontology.

Ralls, K.; Kranz, K., and Lundrigan, B. Mother-young relationships in captive ungulates:variability and clustering. Animal Behaviour. 1987(34):134-145.
biology/ behavior/ neonatology.

Ralls, K.; Lundrigen, B., and Kranz, K. Mother-young relationships in captive ungulates: behavioral changes over time. Ethology. 1987; 75(1):1-14.
behavior/ husbandry/ neonatology/ biology.

Ramaekers, F. C. S.; Van Kan, P. L. E., and Blomendal, H. A comparative study of beta crystallins from ungulates, whale and dog. Ophthalmic Research. 1979; 11(3-4):143-453.
Note: Author affiliation: Dep. Biochem., Univ. Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein Noord 21, Nijmegen, Neth.
The major beta-crystallins from the ocular lens of 4 species from the order Artiodactyla (calf, sheep, hog, and goat) and 3 perissodactyls (rhino, tapir and donkey) were isolated and compared by means of gel electrophoretic techniques and immunodiffusion. In addition beta-crystallins from whale and dog were used in this study. Although these beta-crystallins were not identical, a high degree of similarity was found between animals of the same order. Furthermore all species seem, like previously found in the calf, to have one major component (betaBp) with identical electrophoretic properties, which is shared by both beta(H(igh))-crystallin and beta(L(ow))-crystallin. This suggests a conservative character of this polypeptide in evolution. The most striking differences between artiodactyls and perissodactyls are found in the beta(H)-aggregates, especially apparant is the occurence of the polypeptide, designated as betaB1 in the calf, in the investigated artiodactyl species, but not in the perissodactyls. This results is sustained by immunodiffusion studies. Moreover these latter experiments also indicate that in whale and dog a polypeptide occurs, which is immunologically related to betaB1 from the calf. The resultsmay be explained bby the loss or profound structural change of this polypeptide in the course of perissodactyl evolution.
taxonomy/ ophthalmology.

Rambo, A. T. Bows, blowpipes and blunderbusses: ecological implications of weapons change among the Malaysian Negritos. Malayan Nature Journal. 1978; 32(2):209-216.
Note: Author affiliaton: Dep. Anthrop. & Sociol., Univ. Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaya.
biology.

Ramsay, E. C.; Moren, F.; Roser, J. F., and Lasley, B. L. Urinary steroid evaluations to monitor ovarian function in exotic ungulates (pregnancy diagnosis in perisodactyls). Zoo Biology. 1994; 13(2):129-147.
endocrinology/ reproduction.

Ramsay, Edward C. and Zainuddin, Zainal-Zahari. Infectious diseases of the rhinoceros and tapir. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. 1993; (3):459-466.
bacterial disease/ fungal disease/ parasitology/ salmonellosis/ tuberculosis.

Rapley, W. A. and Mehren, K. G. The clinical usage of Rompun (xylazine) in captive ungulates at the Metropolitan Toronto Zoo. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. 1975(1975):16-42.
anesthesia.

Ray, C. E. and Saunders, A. E. Pleistocene tapirs in the eastern United States. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1984; (8):283-315.
paleontology.

Read, Bruce. Breeding and management of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) at St. Louis Zoo, Missouri, USA. International Zoo Yearbook. 1986; (24/25):294-297.
management/ husbandry.

Redford, D. H. and Eisenberg, J. F. Mammals of the Neotropic, volume two: the southern cone - Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1992.
biology/ conservation.

Redford, K. H. and Robinson, J. G. Park size and the conservation of forest mammals in Latin America. Mares, M. A. and Schmidly, D. J., eds. Latin American mammalogy: history, biodiversity, and conservation. Norman, Oklahoma and London: University of Oklahoma Press; 1991; pp. 227-234.
biology/ conservation.

Redford, K. H. Subsistence and commercial use of wildlife in Latin America. Robinson, J. G. and Redford, K. H., eds. Neotropical wildlife use and conservation. Chicago: Univeristiy of Chicago Press; 1991; pp. 6-23.
biology/ conservation.

Reichel, K. Tapirs. In: Klos, H. G. and Lang, E. M., eds. Handbook of Zoo Medicine. New York, London: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.; 1983; p. 186.
veterinary medicine.

Reichel, K. and Mayer, H. Herpes virusinfektion bei Tapiren. [Herpesvirus infection in tapir]. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Wroclaw Symposium, Akademie Verlag, Berlin; 1972: 221-225.
viral disease.

Reshetov, V. Y. Early Tertiary tapiroidea of Mongolia and the USSR. The Joint Soviet-Mongolian Paleontological Expedition. 1979; (11):1-144.
paleontology.

Reshetov, V. Y. Morphology of skull of asiatic Eocene tapiroid (Lophialetes expeditus Matthew et Granger, 1925). Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India. 1975; (20):41-47.
paleontology.

Reynolds, A. J. The tapirs of Burma Zoo. Zoo Life. 1947; (Autumn).
husbandry.

Richard, M. Une nouvelle forme de tapiride Oligocene: Tapirus (Protapirus) aginensis nov. sp. [A new type of Oligocene tapir: Tapirus (Protapirus) aginensis nov. sp.]. Bull. Soc. Geol. France. 1938; 5 ser, 8765-769.
paleontology.

Robinson, J. G. and Redford, K. H. Sustainable harvest of neotropical forest mammals. Robinson, J. G. and Redford, K. H., eds. Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation; 1991; pp. 415-429.
biology/ conservation.

Robinson, N. D. A description of the Pleistocene faunal remains recovered from Finger Quarry, Blount County, Tennessee. Journal Tenn. Acad. Sci. 1981; 56(2):68-71.
paleontology.

Rodrigues, M.; Olmos, F., and Galetti, M. Seed dispersal by tapir in southeastern Brazil. Mammalia. 1993; 57(3):460-461.
biology/ nutrition.

Rodriguez, M. A.; Vaughan, C., and McCoy, M. Element composition of mineral licks utilized by wild ungulates in Palo Verde, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Brenesia. 1985; 24:391-395.
nutrition/ biology.

Rook, L. and Rustioni, M. Tapirus cf. arvernensis ramains from the late Turolian Bacinello V3 faunal assemblage (Grosseto, Tuscany). Bolletino Della Societa Paleontologica Italiana. 1991; 29325-327.
paleontology.

Roulin, X. Memoir pour servir a l'histoire du tapir; et description d'une espece nouvelle appartenant aux hautes regions de la Cordillere des Andes. [Contributory article on the history of tapirs and describing a new species from the upper regions of the Andes Mountains.]. Annales Des Science Naturelle Zoologie Paris. 1829; 17:26-55.
Note: Note says see also 18:46.
biology/ taxonomy.

Rustioni, M. On Pliocene tapirs from France and Italy. Societe Palentologia Italiana Bollettino. 1992; 31(3):269-294.
paleontology.

Ryder, O. A. A studbook for Malayan tapirs. Zoonooz. 1984; 57(6):16-17.
conservation/ husbandry.

Saez, H.; Rinjard, J.; LeClerc-Cassac, M., and Strazielle, L. Microsporum and microsporoses: III Epizootic foci and isolated microsporoses seen in the Paris Zoological Park. Mykosen. 1977; 20(4):156-162.
Note: Author affiliation: Parc Zool., Paris, France.
fungal disease/ dermatology.

Saez, H.; Rinjard, J., and Strazielle, L. Infection of a tapir with Microsporum canis. Bulletin Mensuel De La Societe Veterinaire Pratique De France. 1974; 58(7):335-338.
Squamous lesions were observed on a male tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) kept at the zoo for 5 1/2 yr. Loss of hair was restricted to a large patch on the buttocks and to 4 smaller patches on the head. Cultures of scrapings yielded Microsporum canis. A month later the hair started to grow and similar cultures were negative. Cure was spontaneous and without treatment, indicating that the tapir is probably not a normal host for the fungus.
fungal disease/ dermatology.

Sala B.; Ungaro S., and Vincenzi L. Tapirus arvernensis Croizet & Jobert del Villafranchiano inferiore de Vignola (Modena). [Tapirus arvernensis Croizet & Jobert from the lower Villavranchian of Vignola (Modena).]. Bolletino Della Societa Paleontologica Italiana. 1990; (29):129-136.
paleontology.

Salas, Leonardo A. Habitat use by lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris L.) in the Tabaro River Valley, southern Venezuela. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1996; (74):1452-1458.

Salas, Leonardo A. and Fuller, Todd K. Diet of the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris L.) in the Tabaro River Valley, southern Venezuela. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1996; (74):1444-1451.

Sanborn, C. C. and Watkins, A. R. Notes on the Malay tapir and other game animals in Siam. Journal of Mammalogy. 1950; 31(4):430-433.
biology.

Santiapillai, C. and Sukohadi Ramono, W. The status and conservation of the Malayan tapir in Sumatra, Indonesia. Tigerpaper (Bangkok). 1990; 17(4):6-11.
biology/ conservation.

Satterfield, W. and Lester, G. A. Internal fixation of a chronic rectal prolapse in a Malaysian tapir. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine. 1974; 5(3):26.
A three-month-old female was noted to have a protruding rectal prolapse 3-4 inches in length. Enemas were administered to remove impacted hay and straw. Liquid petrolatum was administered to remove all roughages. Visitors were feeding her acorns and oak leaves. One half mg of M99 was administered, the prolapse reduced and two purse string sutures were applied which remained for 15 days. She prolapsed again. A median incision was made, the prolapse was reduced, and a section of the large intestines sutured to the right abdominal wall with two rows of interrupted sutures. No further prolapse problems have occured.
surgery/ gastrointestinal.

Schönborn, C.; Seifert, S.; Braun, W., and Schmoranzer, H. Studies of cutaneous fungi of zoo animals. Zoologische Garten. 1971; 41(1-2):7-25.
Note: Author affiliation: Hautklinik, Karl-Marx-Univ., Leipzig, German Democratic epublic.
fungal disease/ dermatology.

Schürer, U. Behavior at birth of Tapirus terrestris. Zoologische Garten. 1976; 46(4-5):367-370.
neonatology/ behavior.

Schaller, G. B. Mammals and their biomass on a Brazilian ranch. Arquivos De Zoologia (Sao Paulo). 1983; 31:1-36.
biology/ conservation.

Schaub, S. Der Tapirschädel von Haslen. [The tapir skull from Haslen.] Ein Beitrag zur Revision der Tapiriden Europas. Abhld. Der Schw. Paeaeont. Ges. 1928; 47:1-28 (pl. 1, 7 text figures).
paleontology.

Schaub, S. Ein tapir aus der Oligocanen Molasse der Ostschweiz. [A tapir from the Oligocene Molasse of Ostschweiz (east Switzerland).]. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 1990; (20):312-316.
paleontology.

Schauder, W. Der gravide uterus und die placenta des tapirs mit vergleich von uterus und placenta des schweines und pferdes. [The uterus and the placenta of the tapir; their comparisons with that of the pig and the horse.]. Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch. 1944; 89:407-456.
reproduction/ anatomy.

Schauder, W. Uber anatomie, histologie und entwicklung der embryonalanhange des tapirs. [On the anatomy, histology, and evolution of the placenta of the tapir.]. Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch. 1928; 60:105-178.
anatomy/ reproduction.

Schauenberg, P. Contribution a l'etude du Tapir pinchaque. [Contribution to the study of Tapirus pinchaque]. Revue Suisse De Zoologie. 1969; 76(8):211-256.
biology.

Schiller, A. Das relief der agmina peyeri bei Tapirus americanus. [The projection (raised appearance) of the Peyer's patches in the American tapir.]. Anatomischer Anzeiger. 1915; 48:54-59.
anatomy/ gastrointestinal.

Schinz, H. R. Ossifikationsstudien beim neugeborenen schwein und beim neugeborenen tapir. [Studies of skeletal ossification of newborn swine and tapirs.]. Mitteilungen Der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich. 1937; 82:21-44.
anatomy/ musculoskeletal/ neonatology.

Schlaikjer, Erich Maren. A new tapir from the Lower Miocene of Wyoming. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 1937; 80:231-251.
paleontology.

Schneider and Seitz. LOOK IT UP.

Schnieder, H. J.; Franz, W.; Audort, F., and Jacob, A. Zur operativen behandlung einer mandibulafraktur durch osteosynthese bei einem flachlandtapir (Tapirus terrestris). [Medical treatment of a mandibular fracture through osteosynthesis in a lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris)]. Erkrankungen Zootiere. 1986; 28:195-199.
surgery/ musculoskeletal.

Schnurrbusch, U.; Schönborn, C., and Elze, K. On the therapy of dermatomycoses in zoo animals. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des XVIII. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere vom 16. Juni bis 20.; 1976: 187-189.
fungal disease/ dermatology.

Schnurrbusch, U.; Schönborn, C.; Seifert, S., and Elze, K. Griseofulvin-behandlungeiner Microsporum-canis-infektion bei einem bergtapir (Tapirus pinchaque). [Griseofulvin treatment of a Microsporum canis infection in a mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque)]. Proceedings of the XIVth International Symposium on the Diseases of Zoo Animals, 14-18 June,1972 in Wroclaw: Erkrankungen der Zootiere.; 1972: 251-255.
Note: Author affiliation: Sektion Tierproduktion Vet. Med., Karl-Marx-Univ., Leipzig,German Berlin, Akademie-Verlag.
A fully grown mountain tapir, on arrival in E. Germany by air from Ecuador, was found to have many nearly hairless patches on the skin of the shoulder, breast, flanks, and back from which Microsporum canis was isolated. The condition was cured by griseofulvin administration in the feed within 50 days.
fungal disease/ dermatology.

Schoch, RM. Two unusual specimens of Helaletes in the Yale Peabody Museum Collections and some comments on the ancestry of the Tapiridae perissodactyla mammalia. Postilla. 1984; 193:1-20.
taxonomy/ paleontology.

Schoch, RM. The type specimens of Tapiravus validus and ?Tapiravus rarus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla), with a review of the genus, and a new report of Miotapirus (Miotapirus marslandensis Schoch and Prins new species) from Nebraska. Postilla (Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University). 1984; 195:1-12.
paleontology/ taxonomy.

Schoch RM. A brief historical review of perissodactyl classification, in: The Evolution of the Perissodactyls (R. M. Schoch and D. R. Prothero, eds.).: Oxford University Press; 1989; pp. 13-23.
Note: or Clarendon Press, Oxford.
taxonomy/ paleontology.

Schoch RM. A review of the tapiroids., (DR Prothero and RM Schoch, eds.). The Evolution of the Perissodactyls: Oxford University Press; 1989; pp. 298-320.
paleontology/ taxonomy.

Schoch RM. Tanyops undans Marsh, 1894: a junior subjective synonym of Protapirus obliquidens Wortman and Earle, 1893 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Postilla (Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University). 1983; 190:1-7.
paleontology/ taxonomy.

Schryver, H. F.; Foose, T. J.; Williams, J., and Hintz, H. F. Calcium excretion in feces of ungulates. Comparative Biochemisty and Physiology. 1983; 74:375-379.
nutrition/ gastrointestinal.

Schultz, C. B.; Martin, L. D., and Corner, R. G. Middle and Late Cenozoic tapirs from Nebraska. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum. 1975; 10:1-21.
paleontology.

Sclater, PL. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a drawing of a Tapir living in the Society's Gardens. (Plate XXIII.). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1882: 389-391.
Download PDF

Sclater, PL. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a skull of an American Tapir. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Nov. 3, 1885: 718.
Download PDF

Scott, W. B. The mammalia of the Duchesne River Oligocene. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 1945; 34:209-253.
paleontology.

Scott, W. B. Two new Eocene lophiodonts. Contributions E.M. Museum of Geology and Archeology, Princeton College. 1883; 3:46-53.
paleontology.

Seidel, B.; Schroder, H. D., and Strauss, G. Immobilization and anesthesia of tapir (Tapiridae) (R. Ippen and H.D. Schroder.). Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des XXIII. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 24-28 Juni, 1981, in Halle/Saale; 1981: 277-285.
Note: Author affiliation: Berlin, German Democratic Republic; Akademie-Verlag.
A tabulated account is given of relevant literature, before findings are presented which were obtained by the authors, in ten instances, from anesthesia of Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Combinations of tranquilizers with morphine derivatives proved to be highly favourable for their reversibility.
anesthesia.

Seitz, Stefan. Tapire im Zoo - Bemerkungen zu Aktivitaeten, Sozialverhalten und interspezifischen Kontakten. [Tapirs in Zoos - remarks on activities, social behavior and interspecific interactions]. Der Zoologische Garten N.F. 1998; 68(1):17-38.

Seitz, Stefan. Zur Aktivitaet und Attraktivitaet von Schabrackentapiren. (On activity and attraction of Malayan tapirs.). Muenchener Tierpark Hellabrunn AG, Report '96. 1997; 18-20.
behavior.

Selbitz, H. J.; Elze, K., and Schüppel, K. F. Kasuistischer beitrag zu den jungtiererkrankungen beim flachlandtapir (Tapirus terrestris). [Case report of disease in young lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris).]. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des XXIV. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere vom 19. Mai bis 23.; 1982: 65-68.
Note: Author affiliation: 1086 Berlin, German Democratic Republic; Akademie-Verlag Berlin.
A newborn male lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) fell sick with salmonellosis and died ten days after birth, in spite of intensive treatment. Secondary pulmonary mycosis caused by Candida albicans had probably been the cause of death.
salmonellosis/ candidiasis/ neonatology/ respiratory/ bacterial disease/ gastrointestinal/ fungal disease.

Sellards, E. H. The skull of a Pleistocene tapir including description of a new species and a note on the associated fauna and flora. Florida Geological Survey 10th and 11th Annual Reports. 1918; 10:57-70.
[Tapirus veroensis].
paleontology.

Sharpe, Sophie. Environmental enrichment for singly-housed South American tapirs. International Zoo News. 1997; 44(2):85-95.

Simpson, George Gaylord. Fossils and the History of Life. New York: Scientific American Books, Inc.; 1983; pp. 98-101.

Simpson, George Gaylord. Notes on Pleistocene and Recent tapirs. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1945; 86(2):33-82, pls 5-10.
biology/ paleontology.

Simpson, George Gaylord. Some Carib Indian mammal names. American Museum Novitates. 1941; 1119:1-10.
biology.

Simpson, George Gaylord and Paula Couto, Count de. Fossil mammals from the cenozoic of Acre, Brazil 3. Pleistocene edentata, pilosa, proboscidea, sirenia, perissodactyla and artiodactyla. Iheringia Serie Geologia. 1981(6):11-74.
Note: Author affiliation: Univ. Ariz., Simroe Found., 5151 East Holmes St., Tuscon, Ariz, USA.
paleontology.

Sinclair, W. J. The discovery of a new fossil tapir in Oregon. Journal of Geology. 1901; 9:702-707, 1 text figure.
paleontology.

Smielowski, J. Albinism in the blue bull or nilgai, Boselaphus tragocamelus (Pallas, 1766). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 1987; 84(2):427-429.
biology.

Smielowski, J. Births of white American tapirs. International Zoo News. 1979; 26(3):10-15.
biology.

Sontag, W. A. Beobachtungen an gemeinsam gehalten Flachlandtapiren (Tapirus terrestris) und Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) im Zürcher Zoo. [Observation of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) kept together in the zoo of Zurich.]. Der Zoologische Garten (Leipzig). 1974; 44:317-323.
behavior/ husbandry.

Souza, W. M.; Miglino, M. A., and Didio, L. J. A. Topography of blood vessels in the hilum of the kidney in Tapirus americanus. Folia Anatomica Univeritatis Conimbrigensis (Coimbra). 1988; 50:83-88.
anatomy/ renal.

Stahl, Barbara J. Vertebrate history: problems in evolution. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1974; pp. 495-496.
Note: An interesting chart showing horse evolution can be used for comparison with tapirs (page not noted).

Starzynski, Witold. Cholelithiasis in an American tapir (T. terrestris). International Zoo Yearbook. 1965; 5:195-196.
gastrointestinal.

. Stehli, Francis G. and Webb, David S., eds. The Great American Biotic Interchange. New York: Plenum Press; 1985; pp. 367-368.
evolution.

Stirton, R. A. and Weddle, H. W. The California tapir, Tapirus haysii californicus Merriam, from Santa Barbara County, California. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences. 1929 Mar 19; 18(7):225-226.
paleontology.

Stock, C. Perissodactyla of the Sespe Eocene, California. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 1936; 22:260-265.
paleontology.

Stovall, J. W. Chadron vertebrate fossils from below the rim rock of Presidio, Texas. American Journal of Science. 1949; 246:78-95.
paleontology.

Strain, W. S. Blancan mammalian fauna from Rio Grande Valley, Hudspeth County, Texas. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 1959; 70:375-378.
paleontology.

Stummer, Martin. Wolltapire, Tapirus pinchaque (Roulin), in Ecuador. Der Zoologische Garten. 1971; 40(3):148-159.
biology.
Download xerox copy of German original with photos [PDF 3.87 MB]
Download English translation made for Tapir Research Institute (no photos) [PDF 440 KB]

Svobodnik, J. Use of Stresnil and Immobilon in Tapirus indicus. Veterinarstvi. 1973; 23(11):519-520.
anesthesia.

Taber, A. B.; Novaro, A. J.; Neris N., and Colman, F. H. The food habits of sympatric jaguar and puma in the Paraguayan Chaco. Biotropica. 1997; 29:204-213.

[Todd S, Wilson R] Tapir Research Institute. Results of a survey of captive tapirs taken by the Tapir Research Institute between July of 1970 and March of 1971. Tapir Research Institute, Claremont California. 1971:22pp.
husbandry.

Tate, G. H. H. Mammals of Eastern Asia. London: The Macmillan Co.; 1947.

Tate, G. H. H. Random observations on habits of South American mammals. Journal of Mammalogy. 1931; 12:248-256.
behavior/ biology.

Terwilliger, V. J. Natural history of Baird's tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Biotropica. 1978; 10(3):211-220.
biology/ nutrition.

Thom, W. S. The Malay tapir. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 1936; 38(3):479-483.
biology.

Timm, R. M.; Wilson, D. E.; Clauson, B. L.; LaVal, R. K., and Vaughan, C. S. Mammals of the La Selva-Braulio Carrillo Complex, Costa Rica. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. N. Am. Fauna. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 1989; 75. 162p.
Fauna guide.
biology.

Tomes, J. On the structure of the teeth of the American and Indian tapirs. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1851:121-124.
anatomy/ gastrointestinal.

Tonni, E. P. Tapirus brisson 1762 mammalia perissodactyla in the Lujanian Upper Pleistocene-Lower Holocene of the Entre Rios Province, Argentine Republic. Ameghiniana. 1992; 29(1):3-8.
Note: Author affiliation: Dpto. Cient. Paleont. Vert., Mus. La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Argent.
paleontology.

Troxell, E. L. Helaletes redefined. American Journal of Science. 1922; 3:365-370.
paleontology.

Turner, H. N. Contributions to the anatomy of the tapir. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1850:102-106.
anatomy.

Ubilla, M. On the presence of fossil tapirs in Uruguay, mammalia perissodactyla Tapiridae. Rev. Fac. Humanidaes Ciencias Ser. Cienc. Tierra. 1983; 1(3):85-102.
Note: Dept. Paleontologia Fac, Humanidaes Ciencias, Montevideo, Uruguay (in Spanish).
paleontology.

Urbain, A.; Nouvel, J., and Bullier, P. Tuberculose et osteopathie hypertrophiante chey un tapir americain. [Tuberculosis and hypertrophic osteopathy in a Tapirus americanus]. Bulletin de Academie Veterinaire de France. 1943; 16:132-135.
respiratory/ tuberculosis/ bacterial disease/ musculoskeletal.

Van Waerebeke, D.; Chabaud, A. G., and Anthony, G. Probstmayria tapiri sp. nov., a nematode parasitic in a New World tapir. Bulletin Du Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, A. (Zoologie, Biologie Et Ecologie Animales). 1988; 10(1):3-8.
Note: Author affiliation: Museum National d'histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Zoologie (Vers), associe au CNRS, 61 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris cedex 05, France.
P. tapiri sp. nov. found in the caecum of a Tapirus terrestris in the Regina region, French Guiana, is described and figured. It is characterized by unequal spicules (64 and 43 microm for the right and left spicules respectively) and fairly large (23 microm) asymmetrical gubernaculum, which distinguish it from the 6 valid species in the genus. It is the first known Neotropical member of Probstmayria. This genus, as well as the closely related Fitzsimmonsnema, is parasitic in phylogenically distant groups of vertebrates with the common trait of possessing a voluminous gut. Probstmayria is considered to be a very ancient group, since the parasite of tapir described here must have been isolated at least from the Paleocene era, and is remarkable in its morphological and biological homogeneity.
parasitology/ gastrointestinal.

Vickers, W. The faunal components of lowland South American hunting kills. Interciencia. 1984; 9(6):366-376.
conservation.

Vickers, William T. Hunting yields and game composition over ten years in an Amazon Indian territory. Robinson, J. G. and Redford, K. H., eds. Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation; 1991; pp. 53-81.
conservation.

Von Richter, Wolfgang. Untersuchungen uber angeborene Verhaltensweisen der Schabrackentapirs (Tapirus indicus) und des Flacklandtapirs (Tapirus terrestris). [Investigations of inherent behavior and mannerisms of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) and the South American lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris)]. Zoologische Beitrage. 1966(12):67-159.
behavior.

Vroege, C. and Zwart, P. Babesiasis in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus Desmarest, 1819). Zeitschrift Fur Parasitenkunde. 1972; 40(2):177-179.
parasitology/ hematology.

Wack, Ray F. and Jones, Althea A. Suspected neonatal isoerythrolysis in two Baird's tapirs. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 1997; 28(3):285-289.

Wall, W. P. The correlation between high limb-bone density and aquatic habits in recent mammals. Journal of Paleontology. 1983; 57(2):197-207.
biology/ musculoskeletal/ anatomy.

Wallach, J. D. and Boever, W. J. Perissodactyla (equids, tapirs, rhinos), Proboscidae (elephants), and Hippopotamidae (hippopotamus). W.B. Saunders ed. 1983; pp. 761-829.
veterinary medicine.

Wan-Ming, X. First discovery of Palaeotapirus in China. Vertebrata Palasiatica. 1979; 17:146-148.
paleontology.

Webb SD. Late Cenozoic mammal dispersals between the Americas, in: The Great American Biotic Interchange (FG Stehli and SD Webb, eds.). New York: Plenum Press; 1985; pp. 357-386.
paleontology.

Whitaker, J. O. Jr. and Mumford, R. E. Records of ectoparasites from Brazilian mammals. Entomological News. 1977; 88(9/10):255-258.
Note: Author affiliation: Dep. of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 USA.
parasitology/ biology.

Whitehead, M. P. and Lock, R. Captive management of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) at Twycross Zoo. Proceedings of a double symposium organised jointly by the Association of British Wild Animal Keepers and Marwell Zoological Society; 1988; 1988: 24-31.
husbandry.

Williams, K. Super snoots. Wildlife Conservation. 1991; 94(4):70-75.
Conservation/ biology.

Williams, KD. Aspects of the ecology and behavior of the Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus Desmarest) in the National Park of West Malaysia [M.Sc. thesis].: Michigan State University, East Lansing; 1978; 54 pp.
behavior/ biology.

Williams, KD. Radio-tracking tapirs in the primary rain forest of West Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. 1979; 32(3/4):253-258.
Note: Aurhor association: Dep. Fish.& Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
Three tapirs were radio-collared and tracked both from the air and the ground in dense rain forest. Radio waves, near 154 KHz, were severely attenuated and this limited reception distances of supplied transmitters to less than 6 miles when tracking from the air and to less than 1.5 miles from ground stations. Effective search distances from ground stations, however, usually were less than 0.5 miles. Receiving antennas at ground stations had to be held in the horizontal plane. The home range of one male was 4.9 mi2 and overlapped the home ranges of several other tapirs.
radio-tracking/ biology/ behavior.

Williams, KD. Trapping and immobilization of the Malayan tapir in West Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. 1979; 33(2):117-122.
anesthesia/ biology/ trapping.

Williams, KD. and Petrides, G. A. Browse use,feeding behaviour, and management of the Malayan tapir. Journal of Wildlife Management. 1980; 44(2):489-494.
Note: Dep. Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
In the rainforest study area within the Taman Negara Park in the north-central part of the Malay Peninsula more than 115 species of 70 genera in 40 plant families were found to have been browsed by the rare Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). The families Euphorbiacea and Rubiaceae included 42% of species taken. Feeding activities were not concentrated in particular localities although most browsing occurred in mesic or hydric areas. The stems of plants browsed by tapirs were usually less than 2.7 cm in diameter. In addition to woody forage young leaves of some herbaceous plants were also eaten. For 46 of the species of food plants of tapirs which were studied, over 75% of the available forage from 27 species was eaten and these were considered to be the most highly preferred foods. Analysis of faecal samples indicated that forages were only coarsely chewed and fruit parts and seeds were usually present; fruits of woody plants were taken from the forest floor. It is suggested that tapirs prefer primary to secondary forest and it is possible that tapirs may not be able to survive where primary rain forests are being felled.
nutrition/ biology/ behavior.

Williams KD (Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.). The Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii Gill) in northwestern Costa Rica. Dissertation Abstracts International, B (Sciences and Engineering) . 1984; 45(4):1075.
Studies on tapirs in the Santa Rosa National Park in 1981-1983 indicated that they preferred multi-layered forest containing mature evergreen trees, woody shrubs and saplings in the understorey and patches of dense cover for daytime retreat, all located near permanent water. The seeds and fruit parts of 33 species were identified in tapir dung. In studies with the seeds of 6 species, 4 showed improved germination potential after passing through the gut of the tapir.
biology/ behavior/ nutrition.

Wilson J.A. and Schiebout, J. A. Early Tertiary vertebrate faunas, trans-Pecos Texas: Ceratomorpha less Amynodontidae. The Pearce Sellards Series. 1984; 39:1-47.
paleontology.

Wilson, Robert A. and Wilson [Todd], Sheryl. Diet of captive tapirs. International Zoo Yearbook. 1973(13):213-217.
nutrition/ husbandry.

Wissdorf H. and Kristinsson, G. Anatomy of the reproductive organs of a 5-year-old non-pregnant tapir. Praktische Tierarzt. 1986; 67(1):20, 23-25.
anatomy/ reproduction.

Wissdorf, H. and Schröder, H. D. Radiography of air sacs in the tapir. Ippen, R. and Schröder, H. D. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 25. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere vom.11 Mai bis 15. Mai 1983 in Wien.; 1983: 385-387.
Note: Author affiliation: Berlin, German Democratic Republic; Akademie-Verlag.
anatomy/ respiratory.

Witmer, L. M., S. D. Sampson, and N. Solounias. 1999. The proboscis of tapirs (Tapirus terrestris): a case study in novel narial anatomy. Journal of Zoology 249:249-267.
[Abstract] [About the author]

Wolska, M. and Piechaczek, H. Some intestinal ciliates from American tapir. Acta. Protozool. 1970(7):221-227.
gastrointestinal/ parasitology.

Wood, H. E. Perisodactyl suborders. Journal of Mammalogy. 19??; 18:106.
paleontology.

Wortman, J. L. and Earle, C. Ancestors of the tapir from the Lower Miocene of Dakota. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1893; 5:159-180.
paleontology.

Yamini, B. and Van Veen, T. W. Schillhorn. Schistosomiasis and nutritional myopathy in a Brazilian Tapir (Tapirus terrestris). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 1988; 24(4):703-707.
Note: Author affiliation: Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 USA.
Gross lesions suggestive of severe hepatoenteropathy and myopathy were noted in a 4.5-yr-old Brazilian tapir from a zoo in Michigan. The major microscopic lesions were granulomatous hepatitis and haemorrhagic enteritis associated with non-operculated eggs compatible with those of the Schistosomatidae (probably Heterobilharzia americana). Skeletal muscle and tongue contained foci of severe acute myodegeneration and necrosis. The hepatic vitamin E value of 1.3 ppm dry weight was considered critically low.
parasitology/ nutrition/ gastrointestinal/ musculoskeletal.

Yin, T. U. Malayan tapir. In. The Wild Animals of Burma. Rangoon: Rangoon Gazette Ltd.; 1967; pp. 147-148.
biology.

Young, W. A. Rearing an American tapir (T. terrestris). International Zoo Yearbook. 1961(3):14-15 (or 94-95).
neonatology/ management.

Zhanxiang, Q.; Defa , Y., and Bo, S. A new genus of Tapiridae from Shanwang, Shandong. Vertebrata Palasiatica. 1991; 4:119-135.
paleontology.



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